Twenty metres deep! The Mesolithic period at the site Yangtze Harbour in the Rotterdam Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Early Holocene landscape development and habitation.

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  XVII World UISPP Congress 2014 Burgos, 1-7 September Underwater Archaeology 146 A4c ORAL 1. UNDERWATER RESEARCH OF THE MIDDLE PALE󰀭OLITHIC IN DALMATIA, CROATIA Karavanić, Ivor (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Archaeology) ikara-van@ffzg.hr  Zubčić, Krunoslav (Croatian Conservation Institute) kruno. zubcic@gmail.com In recent years, work on Middle Paleolithic sites in Dal-matia (south Croatia) has intensified. It focuses on sev-eral cave sites, an open air, and an underwater site, as well as on land and underwater survey of particular parts of the region. This research is funded by Croatian Science Foundation, Ministry of Culture of Republic of Croatia and the University of Zagreb.Kaštel Štafilić - Resnik is Middle Paleolithic underwater site at the depth of about 4m. Small scale underwater excavation and systematic collection of surface finds at this site using a grid have been ongoing since 2008. In 2014 underwater survey of some parts of Dugi island was also carried out. The methodology and preliminary results of underwater research of the Middle Paleolithic in Dalmatia will be presented on a poster. The site of Kaštel Štafilić - Resnik represents elements (lithics) from one or several open-air habitation sites from the time when the sea level was considerably low-er than today. Stone tools, pseudo-tools and numerous naturally broken pieces of local chert were found. All ar-tifacts belong to the Mousterian industry, and there are also indications of the Levallois technique. Although the finds are disturbed (due to the action of waves and other factors) it seems that their accumulation is mainly not a result of displacement from another locality that was far away from the present site. However, only some of the finds may have arrived to their present position through erosion from another place.It is vitally important to continue with this research in or-der to get a more complete picture of the area occupied by the Paleolithic people and their mobility patterns. We hope that this will allow a comparision of the land sites with those now under water, a reconstruction of forma-tion processes of underwater sites, and further improve methodology of research of such sites. ORAL 2. TWENTY METRES DEEP! THE MESOLITHIC PERI󰀭OD AT THE SITE YANGTZE HARBOUR IN THE ROT󰀭TERDAM MAASVLAKTE, THE NETHERLANDS. EAR󰀭LY HOLOCENE LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT AND HABITATION. Sier, Maaike Maria (City of Rotterdam Archaeological Ser-vice (BOOR) mm.sier@Rotterdam.nl Cohen, Kim (Universiteit Utrecht & Deltares) k.cohen@geo.uu.nl Kooistra, Laura (Biax Consult, Biologische Archeologie en Landschapsreconstructie) kooistra@biax.nl Kubiak-Martens, (Biax Consult, Biologische Archeologie en Landschapsreconstructie) Lucy kubiak@biax.nl Moree, Jurrien (City of Rotterdam Archaeological Service (BOOR) jm.moree@Rotterdam.nl Niekus, Marcel (ADC-Archeoprojecten) marcelniekus@gmail.comHans Peeters (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen) J.H.M.Peeters@rug.nl Schiltmans, Dimitri (City of Rotterdam Archaeological Ser-vice (BOOR) dea.schiltmans@Rotterdam.nl Verbaas, Annemieke (Stichting LAB) averbaas@stichtinglab.comVerbruggen, Frederike (Biax Consult, Biologische Archeolo-gie en Landschapsreconstructie) verbruggen@biax.nl Vos, Peter (Deltares), Jorn Zeiler - abone@planet.nl (Arche-obone) Peter.Vos@deltares.nl  In November 2011 archaeologists of City of Rotterdam Archaeological Service (BOOR) conducted underwater research in the Yangtze harbour, Rotterdam Maasvlakte,  The Netherlands. The research was commissioned by the Port of Rotterdam Authority as a result of the expansion of the Rotterdam harbour area and was supervised by the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands. The results of geological, botanical, zoological and ar-chaeological analyses of the retrieved material gener-ated new information on the occupation of a relatively high river dune by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, and on the development history of the surrounding landscape ca. 9,000 years ago.Rather than using diving techniques the underwater in-vestigations were carried out from a board of a vessel us-ing a wire-operated, horizontal closing grab. Three small trenches (total area ca. 375m²) were excavated in layers in a fairly controlled manner. This kind of underwater excavations cannot achieve the same level of precision as is possible on land, but the many soil core samples  XVII World UISPP Congress 2014 Burgos, 1-7 September Underwater Archaeology 147 A4c taken in the project’s preliminary phase allowed detailed descriptions of the geomorphological stratigraphy. The excavation resulted in 316 bulk bags of soil. This soil was sieved on land, using sieves with mesh sizes of 10 and 2mm, after which archaeologists and volunteers careful-ly sorted the residues, documenting a total of ca. 46,000 finds. 68 soil sub-samples were taken from the bulk bags for archaeobotanical analysis. Remains of Mesolithic occupation were discovered at all three grab locations, from depths ranging between 18 and 20m below modern MSL. The finds span the age range from ca. 8400 to 6500 BC, when the site transformed from dryland (an inland dune) to wetland (drowned delta subsurface). At the foot of the inland dune, the condi-tions allowed for excellent preservation of organic ma-terial, such as bone, charcoal and plant food remains, as well as stone and flint artefacts. As a consequence, the site has offered a major contribution to our knowledge of subsistence economy during the Early and Middle Meso-lithic in temperate Europe. Furthermore, much detailed information on local environmental conditions and land-scape development was to be revealed. The landscape ecotones around the site yielded abun-dant food resources on and around the river dune. Un-der the influence of rising sea levels the Rhine/Meuse river valley gradually transformed into the mouth area of those rivers. At 6500 BC, the site was finally transgressed: drowned in an estuary and swallowed up by the sea. The Rotterdam Yangtze Harbour research project dem-onstrates the preservation of Mesolithic sites along the river Rhine, at depths in nowadays coastal and offshore areas. Furthermore, it demonstrates the feasibility of archaeological investigation of such submerged sites, even at depths between 18 to 20m beneath sea, lake and harbour floors. Never before had such a submerged Mesolithic site been excavated at such a great depth. The scientific report (in English) will appear in the autumn of 2014, providing a full description of all finds as well their landscape context. ORAL 3. THE DWELLINGS SITES OF MARANHÃO, BRAZIL Guida Navarro, Alexandre (Universidade Federal do Mara-nhão, Brasil (UFMA) altardesacrificios@yahoo.com.br  We are developing the project “The People of the Wa-ters: the estearias of north-central portion of the Baixada Maranhense”. The estearias  were dwellings sites which were built with wooden pillars that served as support for higher buildings. They are located in the lowlands of a micro-region near the island of São Luís, Maranhão, and they comprise an area of ??approximately 20 000 km2 within the Legal Amazon, being a region with over 500 thousand inhabitants (IBGE census 2006). It is a very poor area with the lowest life indices not only of the State of Maranhão, but Brazil as a whole, whose population lives from subsistence traditional agriculture, fisheries, small livestock and vegetable extraction, especially the ba-baçu coconut. The main cities in this area are Penalva, Viana and Santa Helena. The estearias are located along the many lakes that are characterized by the formation of a compound water system of rivers, floodplains and lakes of varying sizes that are defined by the seasonality of weather. To create the archaeological letter we are conducting a systematic study of the geographical area comprised by estearias  of the north-central portion of Baixada Mara-nhense. We are realizing intensive survey in the region with the aim of recording and cataloging the sites with GPS and GIS (Geographical Information System). After cataloged the sites, we will create a database to under-stand the process of occupation of the lakes and its ex-pansion in the surrounding area.  To create the archaeological letter we are conducting a systematic study of the geographical area comprised by estearias  of the north-central portion of Baixada Mara-nhense. We are realizing intensive survey in the region with the aim of recording and cataloging the sites with GPS and GIS (Geographical Information System). After cataloged the sites, we will create a database to under-stand the process of occupation of the lakes and its ex-pansion in the surrounding area.  The investigation of the processes of human occupation in allied estearias  analysis of cultural material will build a cultural landscape of these populations, their relation-ship with the aquatic landscape and the built environ-ment and the dispersal area:1 . Who were the prehistoric societies that inhabited the lake regions?2 . Why people chose the lacustrine environment to live?3 . What the exact area of the land occupation?4 . Did exist long distance trade?5 . When did collapse these people and why?
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