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ALM : Closing Audio-lingual Method enjoyed its popular its widespread use in the 1960s.Cognitive psychologists and transformational generative linguistics (Chomsky: 1959) questioned about audio-lingual paradigm, they argue that language does not take
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  TRADITIONAL METHODS IV. ALM (Audio Lingual Methode) A.   Background A study in 1923 on the state of FLT concluded that no single method could guarantee successful results,  The goal a teaching conversation skill 1.    The restricted time available 2.    The limited coversation skill of teacher 3.   Irrelevan of coversation skill of american students Coleman Report (1929) advocated that a more reasonable goal for FL course would be a reading knowledge of FL. The main result of this recommendation was that reading skill became the goal of the FL programs in US. In the 2 nd  war, the US government urgently needed a large number of personal who were fluent in FL (French, Italian, Chinese etc).Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) trains to attain conversation skill in FL B.   Underlying Principles ALM derived from BF Skinner (Behaviorist Psychology) is scientific foundation which clearly links between theory and practice. Behavioral psychology is an empirically based approach to the study of human psychology, behaviorism tries to explain how an external event (a stimulus) caused a change in behavior of an individual (a respond) without using concept like “mind” or “idea’ or any kind of mental behavior. They states that people are conditioned to learn many forms of behavior including language, through the process of training or conditioning, three elements of learning are stimulus, response and reinforcement. The application of this theory to FLL is follows 1.    The organism as the learner 2.    The behavior as verbal behavior. 3.    The stimulus as what is presented of FL,  4.    The response as the learner’s reaction to the stimulus,  5.    The reinforcement as the extrinsic approval and praise of the teacher, fellow students and self-satisfaction of TL use. Characteristics of Language Structural View Behaviorist / structure    Element in a language are produced in a rule governed way    Language is structure    Language is speech    Language are difference    Language is speech    A language is a set of habits     Teach the language not about the language    Language is what its native Speaker say    Language is different Structure Linguistics and Behaviorist Psychology Formed its own destinctive Characteristics 1.    The sparation of Language skill 2.    The use of dialogue 3.   Give emphasis on Certain Practice techniques 4.   Discoursing the use of mother tongue in the class 5.    The use of Language Lab. Basic Principle ALM a.   FLL is Basically of process of mechanical habit formation b.   Language skill are learned more effective if the items to be learning in the target language in speaking c.   Analogy, provide better foundation Language Learning and analysis d.    The meaning the words of language have for the Native Speaker can be learned only in linguistic and cultural context and not in isolation C.   ALM Classroom Technique and Procedure a.   Classroom Technique 1.   Repetition 2.   Inflection 3.   Replacement 4.   Restatement  5.   Completion 6.   Expansion 7.    Tranposition 8.   Contraction 9.    Transformation 10.   Integration 11.   Rejoindent 12.   Restoratio b.   Classroom Procedure     Teacher reads the dialogue students who are expected to immitate    Switch role / role play    Answering each other    Drill / repeatation D.   Closing Audio-lingual Method enjoyed its popular its widespread use in the 1960s. Cognitive psychologists and transformational generative linguistics (Chomsky: 1959) questioned about audio-lingual paradigm, they argue that language does not take place through mimicry, since people can learn a language simply by repeating what they hear spoken them. V. CCL (Cognitive Code Learning) A.   Background Sentences are not learned by imitation and repetition but generated from the learner’s underlying competence . Audio-lingual paradigm might lead to language like behaviors but they were not resulting in competence. Audio-lingual method that emphasizes habit formation as process of language learning, Cognitive Approach emphasizes on studying a  foreign language as system of rule (grammar) Knowledge rather than learning it as a set of skill. B.   Underlying Principles Cognitive psychology which views the learning process as a two-way process between organism and its environment ( Nunan : 1997) Cognitive approach the conscious study of language rules (grammar) is the central of FL.  The theory attaches more importance to the learner’s understanding of the structure of FL than to the facility in using that structure, since it is believed that provided the student has a proper degree of cognitive control over the structure of the language facility will develop automatically with use language in meaningful situation. Learning is language process of acquiring conscious control of the phonological, grammatical and lexical pattern of second language, largely through study and analysis of the pattern as a body of knowledge.(Carroll;1966) Language is ruled-governed and creatively only when we are familiar with the rules that language. Transformationlists looks for universal grammar that contains universal relating to the deep-seated regularities characterizing all language.(Noam Chomsky) C.   ALM Classroom Technique and Procedure a.   Classroom Technique 1.   LL is viewed as rule acquisition not habit formation 2.   Instruction is often individuallized 3.   Grammar must be taught 4.   Pronounciation is deemphasized 5.   Reading and writing are once again as important as listening and speaking 6.   Vocabulary instruction is important 7.   Error are viewed  8.    The acher is expected to have good general proficiency in the target language b.   Classroom Procedure 1.   Build on the what the student know 2.   Help the student to know the material 3.   Avaid vote learning 4.   Use graffic and schematic procedure 5.   Utilize both written and spoken language 6.   Select the most appropriate teaching-learning situation 7.   Employ the first language 8.   Use inductive, deductive or discovery learning procedure D.   Closing CCL emphasizes on studying a FL as system of rule and knowledge rather than learning it as a set of skill learning language is learning its grammar
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