Svarajya Siddhih Translated and Annotated Part 14

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Translation and Annotation of 'Svarajya Siddhi' of Gangadharendra Sarasvati from the nineteenth century. This text is considered one of the five Siddhi texts, the other four being Naishkarmya Siddhi, Advaita Siddhi, Ishta Siddhi, and Brahma
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  󰀴󰀴󰀵 PB July 2013 Svarajya Siddhih:   Attaining Self-dominion Gangadharendra Saraswati Translated from Sanskrit and annotated by Swami Narasimhananda ( Continued from the previous issue )  veeÛew levÙeeleØeOeeveb ØeYeJeefle Ûeefuelegb leefVemeie&  efkeÇâÙeb Ûes led   efvelÙeb meie&  Øeme”es ef  veÙeeflejef  he Ùele: meie&het  Jee& ve hetJe&  ced ~  yevOees efvenx  leg  keâ: mÙeelkeâLeceLe ve YeJes ôvOecees#eeJÙeJemLee   efve:meewKÙeb veeefhe cees#eb mhe=  nÙeefle ceef  leceevkeâeef  heueb les ve og  <šced   ~~ 17 ~~ 󰀀e  pradhāna  is incapable of creating (this uni-  verse) because it is not conscious. If  prakṛti  is (held to be) by nature active, then the process of creation will go on forever (and there will be no dissolution). If the  adṛṣṭa  (the invisible effect of actions) is (held to be) the cause of the uni-  verse, (that too cannot be) because it is not pres- ent before creation. (󰀀e  puruṣa ) is free from bondage and it cannot be the cause and how  will not there be the absence of liberation? No intelligent person likes such liberation devoid of bliss. (󰀀us) the stand of Kapila is flawed (and hence cannot be accepted). H 󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁓󰁡󰁮󰁫󰁨󰁹󰁡 󰁳󰁣󰁨󰁯󰁯󰁬 of Kapila is being quashed. Before entering into the argument for setting aside the con- clusions of this school, it will be helpful to go through the basic concepts of  puruṣa ,  prakṛti , and the three  guṇa s. The Soul of Sankhya Sankhya philosophy is dualistic and posits two  principles:  prakṛti and  puruṣa .  Puruṣa s can be loosely called souls and are many. 󰀀ey do not have any parts and qualities. 󰀀ey may oc-cupy a big or a small body, but remain the same themselves. 󰀀e body they occupy does not change their size, they do not expand or con-tract. 󰀀ey are all-pervasive. 󰀀ough they oc- cupy a body, they are not limited or contained by it. 󰀀e experiences of this soul with respect to a body are stored in the mind. Any men- tal activity taking place in this mind is due to the relation of the body and the soul,  puruṣa , and is its experience. Had there not been many  puruṣa s, when one took birth, all would have been born, and when one died, all would have died. 󰀀is does not happen, and so it is only logical that there should be many  puruṣa s. It is very difficult to understand the nature of  puruṣa ,   but this should be understood prop-erly to attain the goal envisaged by Sankhya  philosophy.  Puruṣa does not have any qualities. It is of the nature of pure and absolute Con- sciousness, cit  . However, it is not of the nature of pure intelligence and bliss. Bliss is just a kind of pleasure in Sankhya and a quality of  prakṛti ,   not of  puruṣa .  Puruṣa s are many and each one of them is real. According to Sankhya, the knowledge we obtain of things are images or pictures in our mind. 󰀀e object of knowledge, which is ex-ternal, is a material thing. This knowledge  produces an impression on the mind. 󰀀is im- pression is also material because it is limited in its nature, just like the object of which it is an impression. 󰀀e knowledge or the information  PB July 2013 󰀴󰀴󰀶  Prabuddha Bharata 44 received through sense-perception is the like- ness of the respective object, just like a painting or a photograph. 󰀀e external object is mat- ter and its knowledge is also matter. However, there is a difference in the degree of its gross- ness. While the external object is gross matter, its likeness produced in the mind out of sense-  perception of this object is subtle matter. 󰀀e images of the external objects appear conscious to us in the mind. 󰀀ey appear so because they are in contact with a principle of Conscious- ness, which is connected to the entire mind always and causes the experience of the per- son. However, we are generally unaware of this conscious principle that is behind every act of sense-perception and gives the semblance of Consciousness to all our experiences and their impressions stored in our mind. 󰀀is conscious  principle, oen called the ‘self’ is beyond our grasp. It cannot be found through the impres- sions in the mind, because it is distinct and separate from these impressions. It is a tran- scendent principle and its real nature is behind and beyond the subtle matter of knowledge. All our perceptions are different constructs of the subtle substance that the mind is made up of.  What happens in the process of knowledge can be compared to a film projected from the  projector-room, which is dark. Individually, one by one, a frame of the film is projected and  put in front of light that illuminates it. In rapid succession this gives the semblance of a motion  picture and we see objects and persons moving on the screen. 󰀀ey are being generated from stationary films, which are in darkness, moved in front of a light source. 󰀀e  puruṣa  is like the light source, without which we cannot get any knowledge. All motion and appearances are qualities of matter, and so is their knowledge. How do we perceive them as moving and con- scious? 󰀀ere is a principle separated from these material objects that gives them the semblance of life. 󰀀is principle is conscious and is so inter- twined with matter that it cannot be distinctly  perceived. However, we can infer its presence in all our sense-perceptions. 󰀀is principle of Consciousness does not move, has no form or quality, and is pure. 󰀀e movement of the ex- ternal objects or their mental impressions takes  place with this principle of Consciousness in the background, and all these objects and the impressions get illuminated. Now, every know-ledge or sense-perception can be divided, so to say, into two parts: the part that gives us the idea of something being conscious and the part of the content of the knowledge or the object of the knowledge. So, when we perceive an object, we come to know of the content of the object and also of its life-like consciousness, either exter- nally or internally, in our mind. 󰀀e content is the material aspect of the object, and the life-like consciousness is the light of the  puruṣa  coming through the object. So, whenever there is a per- ception of an object, we perceive our self. 󰀀e difficulty is that we are unable to differentiate or separate this part of consciousness and under- stand its source, the  puruṣa.  Just because the ‘self’ is beyond our grasp, it does not mean that it is not real. It is very much real, but it is also transcendent, and that is why is beyond our reach. 󰀀e objects we perceive are by themselves, diverse, incoherent, and unintel-ligent. 󰀀e principle of Consciousness binds all our perceptions and gives them a unity. So, all the knowledge we acquire is bound and unified in the mind and thus become the coherent, sys-tematic, and seemingly intelligent experience of a person. 󰀀is coherence and semblance of intel- ligence is brought about by the contact with the  principle of Consciousness, the  puruṣa.  In other  words, all our sense-perceptions do not make ‘sense’ without the principle of Consciousness  󰀴󰀴󰀷 PB July 2013 45 Svarajya Siddhih:  Attaining Self-dominion in the background. 󰀀is principle gives sense to all our perception and their sum total becomes experience. According to Sankhya, every individ- ual has a  puruṣa  distinct and separate from that of the other individual. 󰀀is  puruṣa  is of the na-ture of pure intelligence. The Triad of Subtle Entities 󰀀ere are three types of ultimate subtle entities in Sankhya, and this triad is called  guṇa s. Gen-erally, the Sanskrit word  guṇa  means ‘quality’. However, here it has a different meaning. Guṇa s are substances and not qualities. In Sankhya there is nothing such as a separate quality, and every quality is actually a substance. A subtle substance appears in a particular way, and this appearance is what we generally call quality. So, contrary to the general understanding, things or substances do not possess qualities, but qual- ities are different reactions of the substance.  Whenever we perceive a quality, we actually  perceive a particular reaction of a subtle sub- stance. As we saw earlier, the external objects of  perception and their impressions on the mind are in essence matter and have many similar- ities. In the case of qualities too they are simi- lar. So, a quality stored in the mind, or a mental quality, is nothing but a particular reaction of an object stored in the mind. In Sankhya these subtle entities are called  guṇa s because they undergo various modifications and appear as qualities. 󰀀e Sanskrit word  guṇa  also means ‘rope’. Sankhya’s  guṇa s can also be called ropes be- cause they are twines that bind the  puruṣa  to objects and their mental impressions. 󰀀e other meaning of the word  guṇa  is ‘a thing of second- ary importance’. 󰀀is meaning also holds good for Sankhya’s  guṇa s   because they are constantly modified and changed by various permutations and combinations and are not primary and constant beyond modification like the  puruṣa . Also, the  guṇa s are subtle substances that are matter and are definitely secondary to the con- scious  puruṣa . However,  guṇa s are permanent and cannot be destroyed. 󰀀ey are substantive entities or subtle substances and not abstract qualities. 󰀀ey are infinite but are broadly clas-sified into three types, based upon their three main characteristics:  sattva , rajas , and tamas . Sattva  means ‘real’ or that which exists and is behind the process of manifestation of ob-  jects through Consciousness. It is goodness and causes pleasure. It has the characteristics of luminosity, lightness, buoyancy, and is illu- minating. Its colour is white. 󰀀e luminosity of light, the reflective power, any upward move- ment, pleasure, happiness, contentment, and bliss are caused by  sattva . Generally,  sattva  is considered to be the  guṇa of intelligence.  Rajas   is characterized by activity and is the principle of motion. Its literal meaning is ‘foulness’; rajas  produces pain. It results in restless activity, fe- verish effort, and wild stimulation. Its colour is red. It is considered to be the  guṇa  of energy. Tamas literally means ‘darkness’ and is the prin- ciple of inertia. It causes apathy and indiffer-ence. It results in ignorance, sloth, confusion, bewilderment, passivity, and negativity. It is heavy and enveloping and in these respects is the exact opposite of  sattva . It is opposite to rajas  in that it stops activity. Its colour is black. It is considered to be the  guṇa of obstruction, mass, or matter.󰀀ese three  guṇa s are constituents of  prakṛti and are never separate but together in different  proportions. Different substances show differ- ent qualities because of different proportions of these  guṇa s in them. 󰀀ese  guṇa s have ef- fects among themselves, and thus their propor-tions keep on changing thereby producing new qualities and substances. 󰀀ere is continuous  PB July 2013 󰀴󰀴󰀸  Prabuddha Bharata 46 compounding of these  guṇa s. 󰀀ey are both in conflict and in cooperation and always are intermingled. 󰀀ey are like the oil, the wick, and the flame of lamp, all of which are necessary to  produce the light of lamp, yet all of which dif- fer in their characteristics. 󰀀e  guṇa s cannot be perceived directly and can only be inferred from their effects. Every object or thing has all of these three  guṇa s, and the differences in ob-  jects are caused due to the different proportions of these  guṇa s. 󰀀e nature of an object is deter- mined by the predominant  guṇa . 󰀀ere is a state  when all these three  guṇa s are not compounded, and each of the  guṇa s are opposed by each of the other  guṇa s, creating thus a state of equilib-rium where none of the characteristics of these  guṇa s are manifested. 󰀀is state is completely devoid of any characteristics and so is incoher-ent, indeterminate, and indefinite. It is a homo-geneous state without any quality. 󰀀is state of being appears as though it were non-being. 󰀀is state is called  prakṛti . 󰀀is state cannot be said to exist or to not exist. 󰀀ere is apparently no  purpose of this state and it is the starting point of the creation of all things. 󰀀is is the initial  point of time or stage. It is only when this stage is disturbed that all modifications of objects take place. The State of Equilibrium According to Sankhya, creation starts from a state of complete equilibrium of the three  guṇa s, the state of  prakṛti . In this state the  guṇa s had disintegrated into a state of dissolution and became disjointed, producing equilibrium by mutual opposition. 󰀀e first disturbance that arose in this state of equilibrium caused cre- ation. 󰀀is disturbance caused the disturbance of the separation of the  guṇa s, which once again started compounding among themselves thus  producing variety among substances. 󰀀us the universe that had become indeterminate, be- came more and more evolved and determinate. 󰀀e  guṇa s are continuously separating and reu-niting. 󰀀is series of evolution, beginning from the first disturbance of  prakṛti  to the creation of the order in the universe, is governed by a law that cannot be violated. 󰀀is evolution com- prises the development of the differentiated  within the undifferentiated, of the determin-ate within the indeterminate, of the coherent  within the incoherent. 󰀀is evolution is not from the part to the whole; it is not also from the whole to the part. It is from a less differen-tiated, less determinate, less coherent whole to a more differentiated, more determinate, more coherent whole. So, all the changes in terms of the different combinations of the  guṇa s ac- tually take place within  prakṛti . 󰀀e whole of  prakṛti  does not get disturbed. 󰀀e totality of the  guṇa s does not leave the state of equilib- rium. Evolution only means that a large portion of  guṇa s have become disturbed. Evolution takes place upon the coming to- gether of  puruṣa  and  prakṛti .  Prakṛti is continu-ously changing, even in the state of dissolution. In the state of dissolution the change is homoge-nous. Heterogeneous change brings disturbance in the state of equilibrium and causes evolution. Evolution is cyclic and is followed by dissol- ution. Evolution serves the purpose of  puruṣa . It gives objects of enjoyment to the  puruṣa  and also helps in its liberation by discernment between  puruṣa  and  prakṛti .󰀀ese are the basic concepts of Sankhya phil- osophy propounded by Kapila. Here, it is held that  prakṛti  is the equilibrium of the three  guṇa s and falling from this equilibrium state, modifi- cations like mahat  , cosmic mind, are brought about. 󰀀is is not possible. Why? Because  prakṛti   is matter and not conscious. ( To be continued  )
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