Pig manure treatment by filtration

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A study of new pig manure treatment and filtration process was carried out. The advantage of the worked out technology is the method of incorporation of crystalline phase into solid organic part of manure. The obtained new solid phase of manure
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  Regular paper Pig manure treatment by filtration* Zygmunt Kowalski 1 * , Agnieszka Makara 1 , Dalibor Matýsek  2 , Józef Hoffmann 3  and Krystyna Hoffmann 3 1 Cracow University of Technology, Kraków, Poland; 2 VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic; 3 Wrocław University of  Technology, Wrocław, Poland A study of new pig manure treatment and filtration pro-cess was carried out. The advantage of the worked out technology is the method of incorporation of crystalline phase into solid organic part of manure. The obtained new solid phase of manure contains about 50% of crys-talline phase forming a filtration aid that enables high effectiveness of manure filtration. The filtration rate of manure separation into solid and liquid fractions with pressure filter may achieve 1300–3000 kg/m 2 /h. The method makes it possible to maintain an overall aver-age pollutant removal performance 90% for the chemi-cal oxygen demand COD, > 99% for the suspended solids SS, to 47% for the total nitrogen content. The obtained results showed that the proposed technology being effi-cient and simple offers a possible solution to pig manure problems. Key words :   pig manure treatment, filtration process, COD decrease Received : 22 October, 2013; revised: 04 December, 2013; accepted: 16 December, 2013; available on-line: 30 December, 2013 INTRODUCTION  The manure produced in the bedding-free pig farm-ing is a blend of animal droppings, fodder residuals and  water used for keeping the piggery clean and tidy. The composition of the manure depends on many factors, particularly on the species and age of animals, the man-ner of their feeding and keeping, the amount of water used and the duration of manure storage and dilution. Nitrogen, present in manure in various forms, is a com-ponent that determines the value of the manure for ferti-lization (Girard et al  ., 2009; Rulkens et al  ., 1998; Sánchez & González, 2005; Zhang & Westerman, 1997). The nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from the manure contaminate soil and water courses. Volatile organic and inorganic compounds comprised in the manure cause emission of odor into the air (Pawełczyk & Muraviev, 2003).Pig manure produced in high-density livestock farming needs proper management methods. In order to reduce odor emission, costs of storage, transportation and to properly prepare it for further treatment, the manure has to be separated into solid and liquid fractions (Hjorth et al  ., 2008; Hjorth et al  ., 2010). Separation processes have a distinct role in the management of livestock slurries, but it is important to recognize their limitations (Burton, 2007). The complete removal of all suspended matter of an efuent is theoretically possible by settling but the claried stream still retains a signicant polluting poten -tial in terms of the residual nitrogen content and potas-sium.  Treatment with occulants before separation improves its efciency signicantly. The products of the solid–liq  -uid separation may be further treated by evaporation, membrane ltration or ammonia stripping in order to obtain the desired end-products; however, low-mainte- nance and/or cost-efcient operation of these post-treat - ments not been demonstrated yet (Moller et al  ., 2000).  A study of occulants addition on different livestock  wastewaters was carried out in the work of Gonzalez-Fernandez et al  ., 2008. A range of 80–200 ppm of poly  - acrylamide (PAM) followed by screening was employed in the case of occulation treatment. The removal rates in the liquid fraction were 73% for total solids, 87% for  volatile solids, 71% for chemical oxygen demand, 40% for total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and 34% for soluble phos-phorus. Chemical and biochemical properties were investigated in 47 solids collected from commercial solids separation plants separating liquid manure into a nutrient-rich solid fraction and a nutrient-poor liquid fraction (Joergensen & Jensen, 2009). The samples srcinated from ve dif  -ferent types of separation technologies, separating swine manure and anaerobically digested manure. The largest  variations in measured chemical and biochemical charac-teristics between samples were found for ash, total P, to-tal C, SS and C distribution in the biochemical fractions.  The principal component analysis of the obtained data showed that the chemical and biochemical characteristics of the solids were dependent on the type of technology used for separation. In the work of Walker & Kelley, 2003 swine slurry solids separation efciency through gravity settling was evaluated before and after the addi- tion of a proprietary polymeric (PAM) occulant. The results indicated that at concentrations of 62.5–750 mg/l the polymer improved slurry solids separation efciency and signicantly reduced concentrations of other asso -ciated aquatic pollution indicators. The use of polymer might facilitate further treatment and/or disposal and therefore reduce associated environmental degradation potential. Different processes for reduction of the organic mat- ter (anaerobic digestion, efuent separation by decanter centrifugation, membrane microltration, post digestion in up ow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, partial oxidation), nitrogen (oxygen-limited autotrophic * e-mail: zkow@chemia.pk.edu.pl*Presented at the 5th Central European Congress of Life Sciences „EUROBIOTECH 2013”, Kraków, Poland. Abbreviations : COD,   chemical oxygen demand; TKN, total nitrogen determined with Kjeldahl’s method; LF, liquid fractions; SF, solid fractions; BOD 5 , biochemical oxygen demand; SS, suspended sol-ids; P tot , content of total phosphorus. Vol. 60, No 4/2013839–844 on-line at: www.actabp.pl  840 2013 Z. Kowalski and others nitrication–denitrication, OLAND) and phosphorus (phosphorus removal by precipitation as struvite, PRS) from pig manure were tested in the work of Karakashev & Schmidt, 2008. In a nal scheme (PIGMAN concept) combination of the following successive process steps  was used: thermophilic anaerobic digestion with sequen-tial separation by decanter centrifuge, post-digestion in UASB reactor, partial oxidation and nally OLAND process. This combination resulted in reduction of the total organic, nitrogen and phosphorus contents by 96%, 88%, and 81%, respectively. Subject to the quality parameters, the liquid ltration product may be submitted to further cleaning treatment or directly used for crop irrigation. Solid fraction may be used as organic fertilizer or for power generation in biomass incineration plants and agricultural biogas gen-erators (Ferrer et al  ., 2009; Hjorth et al  ., 2010; Ndegwa, 2001). Liquid/solid separation process was based on the experiments carried out with the use of a commercial separator system applying a cationic polymer and a lter press separator (Miller et al  ., 2007). Anaerobic digestion process (AD) runs under thermophilic conditions with post-digestion under mesophilic conditions to extract the additional methane. Thermal pre-treatment process (TPT), applied to separated solid manure fraction prior to AD process, runs at 127°C to improve biogas yield. In the Danish case, water from the separated solid frac-tion of pig manure evaporates in the drying process un-til achieving 95% of dry matter content. The system can recover up to 72.5% of the heat used for evaporation in heat exchangers (Prapaspongsa, 2010).  The integrated system of centrifugation/two-step ultraltration/nanoltration was used to recover wa -ter from pig slurry (Konieczny et al  ., 2011). PVDF UF (100 and 50 kDa), PES UF (10 and 5 kDa) and com -posite hydrophilic NF membranes (0.2 kDa) were used.  The study showed that among all the discussed system congurations centrifugation–UF50–UF5–NF0.2 was the most effective. 33% of initial crude slurry volume  was obtained as the nal permeate. The nally obtained product was suitable to be reused as sanitary safe indus-trial water. Research work to optimize the BIOSORTM-Manure, a bioltration process for pig manure treatment, have been realized on the site of a piggery (Île d’Orléans, Québec, Canada) using a 400 m 3  bioltration system (Buelna et al  ., 2008). Despite strong variations in BOD 5   (10 000–20 000 mg/L), in SS (10 000–20 000 mg/L), in  TKN (2000–3800 mg/L) and in P tot  (500–900 mg/L), the BIOSORTM made it possible to maintain an overall pollutant removal > 95% for the BOD 5  > 97% for the SS > 84% for the TKN and > 87% for the P tot . The pro-cess eliminates over 80% the odor intensity coming from the production units, the storage, the transportation and the spreading of the manure.In the study (Chelme-Ayala et al  ., 2011) pig manure  was treated by physic-chemical treatment, including co- agulation, occulation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine  were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial NH 3 , 78% of initial total organic carbon, and 93% of the total coli- forms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine.  This work presents new pig manure treatment and ltration process. The tests comprised mineralization of pig manure components with the use of phosphoric and sulfuric acids and super phosphate, heat treatment and subsequent ltration with pressure lter. The use of mineral acids allowed to eliminate pathogens. The advantage of the worked out technology is the method of incorporation of crystalline phase into solid organic phase of the manure of crystalline phase. This resulted in high ltration rate with applied pressure lters. MATERIALS AND METHODS For laboratory tests the pressure lter of volumet - ric capacity of 2000 mL manufactured by Sartorius was used. For Kjeldahl’s method of nitrogen determination, DK6 mineralizer and equipment for distillation with steam, both manufactured by VELP, were applied. Phos - phorus content was determined with Nano color UV/ VIS spectrophotometer manufactured by Macherey-Nagel. Mineralization of samples for COD determination  was made with M-9 mineralizer manufactured by WSL. For determination of Ca, K, Mg, P, S contents in the sediment, Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emis- sion (ICP-AE) spectrometer of OPTIMA 7300 DV type manufactured by Perkin Elmer was used; the contents of C, H and N were determined with Perkin Elmer’s PE 2400 analyzer. Phase composition of the sediments was determined  with Bruker AXS D8 Advance diffractometer. In the samples with semi-quantitative analytical method the content of crystalline and amorphous phases were de-termined using Rietveld method and semi-quantitative analysis software package RayeX Autoquan version 2.6 (Taut et al  ., 1998). Microscopic analysis of the after ltration sediment  was carried out with Hitachi TM 3000 electron micro -scope. Thermal analysis of the dried sediments was made  with the TG/DTA 7300 EXSTAR SII derivatograph.  The measurements were performed in an air atmosphere  within temperature ranges of 25–1000°C. Eight batches of the pig manure taken from the same pig farm were used. For treatment process 150–230 g of manure was processed in one batch. Chemical compo-sition of the pig manure was determined in accordance  with the Polish standards using appropriate analytical, physical and chemical methods (Kowalski et al  ., 2012). Microbiological analyses were conducted in accordance  with (Polish standard, 2003). The results are given in Ta-ble 1. First stage of experiment comprised performance of preliminary tests aiming at selection of parameters of pig manure mineralization and phase separation. These tests showed the possibility of COD load reduction in the liq  - uid phase by minimum 80% at ltration rate of mini -mum 0.5 m 3 /h/m 2  of ltration surface area (Kowalski et al  ., 2012). Each time prior to the commencement of mineraliza-tion process, the manure was thoroughly stirred, and af-ter stirring, the weighed amounts of phosphoric and sul-furic acids were added to the manure for obtaining pH  value of approximately 5.5 and 3.0, respectively. Next the slurry was treated with 10% solution of lime milk for obtaining a pH about 8.5, then super phosphate in amount of 10% of the initial manure weight was added, and the mixture was second time neutralized with lime milk. The processed slurry was heated for about 50 minutes, cooled down to about 75°C and ltered with a pressure lter. As a result of ltration, light straw colored ltrate and sediment were obtained. The analy  - ses comprised determination of pH value, COD load, contents of N according to Kjeldahl, and P tot  in the l -  Vol. 60 841 Pig manure treatment b y filtration trate. Moisture content and chemical composition of the sediment were determined. Elementary analyses of P, Ca, Mg, S, K, N, C and H contents in the sediment were carried out, too. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  The treatment with mineral acids was aimed at trans-formation of macro-and micro- fertilizer components into the form bio-available to the plants, binding volatile organic and inorganic nitrogen compounds and hydrol- ysis of organic matter. Moreover, the addition of acids improves sanitary and epidemic safety owing to elimina-tion of pathogens (bacteria and parasite eggs). The ma-nure slurry was neutralized with lime milk (10% solution) at two stages of the treatment. The addition of super phosphate-type fertilizer allowed also balancing nitrogen and phosphorus contents in the sediment obtained after ltration (Kowalski & Makara, 2012; Polish patent ap - plication, 2012). The gures of treatment and ltration process of pig manure are shown in Table 2. The results of ltrate and after ltration sediment analyses are given in Table 3.  The consumption gures of phosphoric and sulfuric acids and lime milk used for the manure mineralization  varied depending on the chemical composition of the manure. The higher dry matter content in the manure re-sulted in increased consumption of acids and lime milk. Despite strong variations in COD (10 000–80 000 mg/L), in SS (10 000–20 000 mg/L), in TKN (2000– 3800 mg/L) and in P tot  (500–900 mg/L), the method made it possible to maintain an overall average pollutant removal performance about 90% for the COD, > 99% for the SS, to 47% for the TKN. The mineralization process eliminates also over 75% of the odor intensity coming from the obtained ltrate in comparison to odor intensity coming from the pig manure (Kowalski et al  ., 2012; Sówka et al  ., 2013). Table 1. Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses of pig manure. Determined ParameterManure batchIIIIIIIVVVIVIIVIII TKN (mg/L)36804370539087303960797229563230BOD 5 (mg/L)9620252501450036900122404140026207050COD (mg/L)200005340029600879003688098300876014950Phosphorus P tot  (%)46291055416607841810224221Potassium (%)3.374.757.31.956.86.9211.83.77Calcium (%) matter (%) Salmonella  group bacilli   (amount/L)not foundnot foundnot foundnot foundnot foundnot foundnot foundnot foundParasite eggs a (amount/L)nonenonenonenonenonenonenonenone   a Parasite eggs (Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., Toxocara sp.). Table 2. The pig manure treatment process figures and parameters. Raw materials used (kg/1000kg of manure)Manure batch I II III IV V VI VII VIIIH 3 PO 4  (pure – 75%)29.728.845. 2 SO 4  (technical 95%)5.68.610.025.27.513.39.23.5Lime milk (10% solution)229.2238.9293.3346.1180.3227.5198.6255.8Superphosphate100.0100.097.4100.0100.0100.00100.0100.0 Treatment products(kg/1000kg of manure)Manure after treatment be-fore filtration 2190.81300.31086.61261.41089.31209.51114.31052.9Sediment 503.6298.9390.1560.6224.6350.0318.4266.0Filtrate1587.4942.0646.6669.5830.0834.6755.2752.3Filtration rate (kg/m 2  /h)304320608626982015102414611322  842 2013 Z. Kowalski and others  Treated ltrate could be used for articial rain irriga -tion of crops or eventually as raw material for produc- tion of liquid fertilizer. If required, the ltrate may also be treated in conventional biological WWTP’s. The in-creased P tot  content in the ltrate, 5–6 times higher than in pig manure is a problem. The goal of our further re- search is to decrease the phosphorus content in the l -trate. The conducted operations resulted in crystallization of inorganic compounds in the slurry. Their presence would help to improve the ltered sludge structure and conse - quently to increase the ltration rate of treated manure slurry. The results of the semi-quantitative X-ray analy- sis of the phase content in the after ltration sediments presented in Table 4 showed that the content of amor-phous substances in the samples is rather high reaching, in some cases even about 60% of sample mass. The crystalline phase whose content was equal to 60% of the mass of dried sample contained different calcium phos-phates mostly hydroxyapatite. In some samples calcium sulfates and small amounts of silica were determined. Table 3. Results of filtrate and after filtration sediments analyses. Determined parameter (mg/L)Manure batchIIIIIIIVVVI VIIVIIIFiltrate TKN 30122660420068003230541021002264COD2620600043001220039001070011501900Reduction in the filtrate (%): Concentration of COD 86.9 88.8 85.5 86.1 89.4 89.1 86.987.3 Load of COD90.1 89.4 90.6 90.8 91.2 90.9 90.190.4Reduction in the filtrate (%): Concentration of N 18.1 39.1 22.1 22.1 18.4 32.1 29.029.9 Load of N38.10 42.65 49.61 48.22 32.30 43.37 46.3547.27SS<0.1<0.1<0.1<0.1<0.1<0.1<0.1<0.1P tot  5180 481833709130 3920 1133015681347Filtered sedimentC   12.1815.615.0016.9710.7813.2613.564.63H 2.222.681.332.862.052.32.331.16N   0.911.151.081.660.931.231.180.68Ca   22.1725.3329.7518.7223.4219.6821.4932.59K    0.190.390.640.470. 0.380.780.310.550.500.520.540.38P   11.4513.1013.347.9810.968.0510.0514.95S   1.412.011.382.271.571.501.531.07Moisture content (%)48.1950.9660.555.5743.0048.4653.1752.46 Table 4. Results of the semi-quantitative X-ray analysis of the phase content in the after filtration sediments (denotation of samples as in Table 3). SampleContent (%)Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH)CaHPO 4 SiO 2 CaHPO 4. 2H 2 OCaSO 4 . 0.5H 2 OCa 2 H 2 P 2 O 7 CaSO 4 . 2H 2 OAmorphous phaseI44.40±3.306.92±1.262.25±1.153.58±0.9642.85±3.9II45.8±3.905.34±1.144.35±0.7544.51±4.5III36.93±2.9410.5±2.2052.57±3.3IV28.18±2.6711.5±4.2060.32±4.5V38.5±3,000.88±0.6312.62±2.162.90±1.1545.1± 4.5VI31.1±3.204.39±0.963.20±0,522.50±1.158.81±4.8VII48.0±4.600.19±0.289.30±1.443.61±0.4138.9±6.0VIII50.30±4.306.02±2.1943.68±3.9  Vol. 60 843 Pig manure treatment b y filtration SEM images conrmed the presence of a considerable amount of minor crystallites (Fig. 1).  Thermal analyses of the after ltrate sediments (Fig. 2) showed that in time of samples heating in the temperature range to 70°C take place elimination of ab-sorbed water and next in 150°C decomposition of cal-cium hydrates present in the samples. Thermal effects connected with decomposition of organic compounds and transformation of calcium phosphates were observed at 350–500°C. Two well-marked exothermic effects were to be seen at temperatures about 350°C (more inten- sive) and 460–470°C. Minor thermal effects observed at > 600°C are connected probably with decomposition of calcium phosphates.  The results of X-ray and SEM analyses of the ltrate sediments conrmed that the worked out process of the pig manure mineralization allowed to incorporate into solid phase of slurry about 40–60% of crystalline phase (contained mostly calcium phosphates) that constituted some type of ltration aid, enabled achieving the high effectiveness of the ltration process. Simultaneously the used pig manure treatment process allowed coagulating considerable amount of organic phase contained micro particles that were incorporated into sediment. It re- Figure 1. SEM images of the dried sediments (samples I, IV and VII — magnification A — 1000 B — 3000).
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