Nour, A. H, Adam, M. S. and Nurdin, S. (2013). Membrane Anaerobic System Assisted with Ultrasonic for Sewage Sludge Treatment. I. J. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (IJCEE), 4 (6), 359-362

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Nour, A. H, Adam, M. S. and Nurdin, S. (2013). Membrane Anaerobic System Assisted with Ultrasonic for Sewage Sludge Treatment. I. J. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (IJCEE), 4 (6), 359-362
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  Membrane Anaerobic System Assisted With Ultrasonic for Sewage Sludge Treatment Abdurahman H. Nour a , Said Nurdin a  and Mazza S. Adam a,b   a Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Natural Resources, University Malaysia Pahang, UMP, Lebuhraya, Tun Razak, 26300, Kuantan- Pahang, Malaysia. b Corresponding Author E-mail: Tel: +60162314643 Abstract Sewage sludge is the unavoidable product from wastewater treatment plant. Many deferent processes are used in order to minimize sludge and make it safe, easy to be transferred and beneficial. Anaerobic reactor coupled with membrane system is a successful treatment method of sludge treatment. It has the advantages of membrane and the anaerobic operation. However treatment operation is still slow and membrane fouling lead to increase the cost and time needed for cleaning. Ultrasound is a good new technology. It can be used to prevent membrane fouling and enhance sludge disintegration, improve sludge dewaterability and increase biogas production. Keywords: Ultrasonic, Acoustic cavitation, Anaerobic digestion, membrane, sewage sludge.   Introduction Sludge in a considerable amount is produced during the deferent stages of wastewater treatment, and it can affect the environment negatively if disposes to the land in the conventional way. Treatment of sludge has a high cost [1], so they’re an urgent need to highly improve sludge treatment to minimum mass and volume. Anaerobic digestion of sludge is a process that converts degradable organic compounds to methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the absence of the oxygen with a series of a microbiological process, comprises hydrolysis, acidogenese, acitogenesis and methanogenesis, [2]. Anaerobic treatment system has many advantages and more favored over the aerobic system. Its operational cost relatively low, produce less waste sludge and produce biogas which, can be used in many deferent ways. However, the conventional anaerobic system is limited to certain conditions, i.e. it is not feasible for treating low  –   strength wastewater in cold climate, [ 3 ]. In addition anaerobic process is slow, long residence time in the reactor, and large reactor’s volumes are required. In case of sewage sludge digestion, hydrolysis has been considered to be the rate limiting step in the overall anaerobic digestion, [ 4 ]. Membrane system has been entered to the anaerobic system to overcome its limitations; anaerobic membrane bioreactor demonstrates the effectiveness of membrane in separating solids from sludge suspension. When membrane was used, solids could completely retain, hydraulic retention time became shorter leading to smaller volume of the reactor. Moreover, by using membrane system pollutant degradation will improve and no need to the conventional additives, i.e. coagulant which are used to enhance thickening after conventional anaerobic operation, [5]. However, membrane fouling due to adsorption of organic matter, deposition of inorganic matter and adhesion of microbial cells to the membrane surface, is major hindrance for anaerobic membrane bioreactor implementation. In order to prevent membrane fouling, incorporating ultrasound to anaerobic membrane bioreactor is expected to make good control for membrane fouling, [6]. Membrane system   Membrane systems have been used for many years, spatially after its availability in different good specifications and lower cost. Many advantages make the membrane process viable, such as its capability for the size of any treatment plant through the modular construction of membrane filtration plant,[3], perfect retention of the all   
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