ცხოვრება ორ წყალს შუა - ბაბილინა ხოსიტაშვილი | Life Between Two Edges - Babilina Khositashvili

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dominika erisTavi, babilina xositaSvili, daria axvlediani, solomon TavaZe daba waRveri 1926 w. babilina xositaSvili cxovreba or wya;ls Sua Tbilisi 2018 Semdgenlebi:…
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dominika erisTavi, babilina xositaSvili, daria axvlediani, solomon TavaZe daba waRveri 1926 w. babilina xositaSvili cxovreba or wya;ls Sua Tbilisi 2018 Semdgenlebi: qristine kuxianiZe, lana muSkudiani, Tamar nodariSvili, salome qinqlaZe, nino cqifuriSvili, mariam WanWaleiSvili, qeTevan xuciSvili garekanis dizaini: luiza WikaZe dizaini/dakabadoneba: daviT WikaZe koreqtori: TamTa naWyebia daibeWda: Sps „degaprintSi” gamocema momzadda proeqt „arqivuli ambebis“ farglebSi. pub- likaciaSi Sesuli masalis Sinaarsze pasuxs agebs avtori. is SeiZleba ar gamoxatavdes `orbeliani saqarTvelos~ da Sve- deTis mTavrobis Sexedulebebs. publikaciaSi gamoyenebuli xelnawerebi da fotoebi daculia giorgi leoniZis saxelobis qarTuli literaturis muzeumis arqivSi. publikacia ibeWdeba SvedeTis mTavrobis finansuri mxardaWeriT organizacia „orbelianis” onlain platformis xelSewyobiT. © SemdgenelTa jgufi, 2018 „orbeliani saqarTvelo” rusTavelis gamz. 34, 0108 q. Tbilisi, saqarTvelo tel: +595 0322 98 20 72; el-fosta: office@orbeliani.net; veb-gverdi: www.orbeliani.net ISBN 978-9941-8-0597-4 sarCevi winasityvaoba...............................................................................................................7 biografia.........................................................................................................................9 publicistika...................................................................................................... 21 feminizmi......................................................................................................................... 23 sneuli sakiTxi......................................................................................................... 25 mogoneba 1905 wlis revoluciidan.......................................................48 qalis sazogadoebrivi mdgomareoba winaT da exla........54 saq. „muk“-is c./sabWosa da gazeTi „mebrZoli aTeistis“ redaqcias pasuxad Ria werilze............................................................61 safo mgelaZis werili......................................................................................71 mogonebebi...................................................................................................................... 73 dRiurebi.................................................................................................................. 83 dRiuri ...........................................................................................................................85 dRiuri .......................................................................................................................... 103 dRiuri..........................................................................................................................107 saerTo rveuli, dRiurisTvis..................................................................110 leqsebi.....................................................................................................................115 xma jurRmulidan ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 117 frTosani survili........................................................................................... 117 qarxanaSi....................................................................................................................... 118 qalebs............................................................................................................................ �119 haineseburi................................................................................................................. 120 maSvralTa simRera............................................................................................ 120 dedis simRera..........................................................................................................121 Cemi fiqrebi 1916 axal wels................................................................... 122 dedis Tvali............................................................................................................. 122 Cems SoTas.................................................................................................................. 122 deda samuSaoze...................................................................................................... 123 werili dolores boboqars...................................................................... 123 piesa...........................................................................................................................127 „qalebi“........................................................................................................................ 129 „sxvanairi qali“.................................................................................................. 129 „fuqsavat wreSi“................................................................................................. �138 „moRvaweoba da qvelmoqmedeba“............................................................ 156 6 winasityvaoba saqarTveloSi qalTa uflebebisaTvis brZolas sul mcire erTi saukunis istoria aqvs. pirveli fem- inisti qalebis arqivebi ki uamrav saintereso ambavs inaxavs. sazogadoebis didi nawilisTvis es qalebi jer kidev ucnobia. im fonze, rodesac istoriidan gandevnilia qalTa xma da perspeqtivebi, amis aRdgena arqivebis kvleviTaa SesaZlebeli. es gamocemac am in- formaciuli danaklisis Sevsebis mcdelobaa. am krebuliT gaecnobiT feministi qalis, babilina xositaSvilis (1884-1973), piradi, akademiuri da liter- aturuli cxovrebis epizodebs. gaigebT, Tu ras werda is dedobaze, seqsualobaze, qalTa SromiT da politi- kur uflebebze. amavdroulad, qalis perspeqtividan dainaxavT qalTa moZraobis da, zogadad, im epoqis is- torias saqarTveloSi. publikaciaze muSaobis procesSi gavacifruleT xositaSvilis piradi arqivi. gavdiodiT konsulta- ciebs genderis mkvlevrebTan da vTanamSromlobdiT muzeumebTan. gamocemaSi Sesulia misi biografia, wer- ilebi feminizmsa da qalTa sakiTxebze, kvleviTi sta- tia “SuSanikis wamebis” Sesaxeb, amonaridebi dRiure- bidan, leqsebi da piesa “qalebi”. aq gamoyenebuli teqsturi masala da fotoebis nawili daculia giorgi leoniZis saxelobis qarTu- li literaturis muzeumSi. nawili fotoebisa inaxe- ba babilina xositaSvilis Zmis, irodion evdoSvilis saxlmuzeumSi, sofel bodbisxevSi. aseve, ramdenime foto mogvawoda mwerlis STamomavalma, qalbatonma neli xositaSvilma. xelnawerebis stili daculia. dRiurebi ibeWdeba SemoklebiT. am gamocemiT SeuZliaT isargeblon studentebs, leqtorebs, genderis mkvlevrebsa da qalTa istoriiT dainteresebul pirebs. aq Sekrebili masala, aseve, 7 ganTavsebulia blogze: https://babilinakhositashvili.wordpress. com. arqivze momuSave jgufi madlobas uxdis onlain platforma “orbeliani saqarTvelos“, romlis mxardaWeriTac SesaZlebeli gaxda am publikaciis gamocema da gavrceleba. madloba TamTa melaSvils, romlisganac pirvelad gavecaniT rogorc arqivebTan muSaobis specifikasa da mniSvnelobas, ise Tavad babilina xositaSvils; madloba genderis kvlevis samagistro programis kursdamTavrebulebs gvanca kvinikaZesa da ani gogberaSvils publikaciis momzadebaSi Setanili wvlilisTvis; gansakuTrebuli madloba giorgi leoniZis saxelobis qarTuli literaturis muzeums, xelnawerTa da ikonografiuli ganyofilebebis TanamSromlebs: marine yifians, daviT buaCiZesa da nana kobalaZes gulisxmieri mxardaWerisTvis, saWiro informaciisa da ideebis mowodebisaTvis, samsjelo da samuSao sivrcis SeqmnisTvis. madloba irodion evdoSvilis saxelobis muzeumis menejers, marina TevdoraSvilsa da fondebis mcvels, Tamar pavliaSvils, aseve, mwerlis axloblebsa da STamomavlebs diana (cico) da maia kurdRelaSvilebs da lena da neli xositaSvilebs. dabolos, madloba TamTa naWyebias stilisturi SeniSvnebisTvis da daviT da luiza WikaZeebs dizainisa da teqnikuri mxardaWerisTvis, romlebmac udidesi wvlili Seitanes wignis gamosacemad momzadebaSi. 8 biografia „vfarTxaleb wylidan gamoriyul TevziviT, radgan ganzraxul Temebze muSaobisaTvis nivTieri uzrunvelyofaa saWiro da me ki es ar gamaCnia”. babilina xositaSvili 31 noemberi, 1936 weli bavSvoba babilina xositaSvili 1884 wels qiziySi, sofel bodbisxevSi daibada, soflis diakvnis ojaxSi. mwerl- is deda, evdo (evdokia) xunaSvili cameti wlis gaTx- ovda da gaaCina aTi Svili, romelTagan mxolod xuTi gadarCa. xositaSvilis avtobiografiuli wignidan „mSobliur soflidan dedaqalaqSi“ vigebT, rom ev- dokia mudam saojaxo saqmiT iyo dakavebuli da ro- gorc babilina ixsenebs: „dedas egona, rom siRnaRis iqiT qveynis sazRvari Tavdeboda” (xositaSvili, 1964). mwerlis mama oblobaSi gaizarda. wera-kiTxva sof- lis dekanozma aswavla. rogorc mwerali igonebs, ma- mas soflisgan ekuTvnoda samrevlo gadasaxadi, ro- melsac is ver iRebda, radgan mosaxleoba ukiduresad gaWirvebuli iyo. Tumca, sxva sasuliero pirebi gan- sakuTrebuli simdidriT gamoirCeodnen, Svilebs saz- RvargareT agzavnidnen saswavleblad, uamravi saqone- li hyavdaT da didi saxlebi hqondaT. xositaSvilebma ki axali saxlis aSeneba mxolod mas Semdeg SeZles, rac ufrosi Zma, ilia, samxedro samsaxurSi wavida da ojaxis daxmareba daiwyo. babilinas ufrosi da adreve gaTxovda. mama da ufrosi Zmebi cdilobdnen, umcrosi disTvis wera-kiTx- va eswavlebinaT, ganaTleba miecaT. Tumca, rogorc 9 mogvianebiT gairkva, maT babilinasTvis ganaTlebis garkveuli zRvari hqondaT dawesebuli. maTi azriT, ganaTleba qals ukeTesi ojaxis Sesaqmnelad da am ojaxis gasaZRolad sWirdeboda. kidev erTi garemoe- baa TvalSisacemi avtobiografiidan: babilina dedas axasiaTebs, rogorc Zalian lamaz qals, aseve, dedma- miSvilebs. sakuTar garegnobaze saubrisas ki ambobs, rom arc tanisa da arc saxis silamaziT ar gamoirCe- oda da, amitom, Tayvanismcemlebi ar awuxebdnen xolme. SesaZloa, misi ojaxis wevri kacebi Tvlidnen, rom lamazi garegnobis arqona gonebiT unda aenazRaure- bina babilinas. amisTvis ki „Zalian bevr” swavlas ar miiCnevdnen saWirod. swavla wera-kiTxvis dawyebidan Zalian male babilinam aR- moaCina, rom swavla da Semecneba iyo is, rac amqveynad yvelaze metad ainteresebda da sicocxlis bolomde Seyvarebuli darCa masze. eqvsi wlis babilinas swored mamam aswavla wera-kiTxva da locva. Svidi wlidan soflis skola- Si Sevida. rva wlis barbare ki daojaxebul ufros ZmasTan gadavida sacxovreblad yazanSi da iq gaagr- Zela ganaTlebis miReba. cameti wlis barbare bodbis pansionSi miabares saswavleblad, sadac oTxi wlis ganmavlobaSi dar- Ca. pirveli sami weli pansionSi swavlobda. avtobi- ografiul naSromSi pansionis wlebi detalurad aqvs aRwerili. monastruli disci plina, rusuli aRzrda, qarTuli kulturis ugulebelyofa, kaci maswavleb- lis upasuxismgebloba, monazvnebis Rvinis siyvaruli, moswavleebis klasobrivi da socialuri warmomav- loba, swavlebis meTodebi, pedagogebis damokidebule- ba da kidev mravali detali moxvda babilina xosit- aSvilis yuradRebis centrSi. swavlis dasrulebis Semdeg, babilinam monaster- 10 Si darCena gadawyvita, radgan, rogorc Tavad ambobda, „wmindanobam” gaitaca. es gataceba erTi weli gagr- Zelda. miuxedavad ojaxis wevrebis, gansakuTrebiT ki umcrosi Zmis, irodionis (romlis udidesi pativis- cema da siyvaruli hqonda) mravalgzis Txovnisa da rCevisa, igi monastridan ar wamovida. rogorc Tavad ambobs, „wmindanobis” gataceba maSin dasrulda, roca aRmoaCina, rom RmerTi ar arsebobs. «Не знаю, если бога нет, комуже молиться» - wers is mogonebebSi. mama da umcrosi Zma irodioni gulSematkivrobdnen barbares, rom swavla gaegrZelebina. monastris Sem- deg daiwyo Tbilissa da sofels Soris misi mraval- wliani mogzauroba. TbilisSi 1901 wels Camoiyvanes, Tumca, swavlis gagrZeleba usaxsrobis gamo ver Se- Zlo. zafxuls sofelSi atarebda xolme, danarCen dros ki TbilisSi iyo, Zmebis ojaxSi. ojaxis wevrebi Tvlidnen, rom momavalSi gogo- nas xelsaqmis codna ufro gamoadgeboda. babilinas sZulda xelsaqme da Tavisufal dros biblioTekaSi atarebda. is mudam Tvalyurs adevnebda qalaqSi mim- dinare kulturul cxovrebas, axali biblioTekebis gaxsnas da Rameebs wignebis kiTxvaSi aTenebda. imis gamo, rom swavlis gagrZelebas ver axerxebda, babilina mudmivad cdilobda, arsebuli SesaZleblo- bis farglebSi mieRo codna da axali informacia: „CemTvis xom ideali iyo maSin umaRles kurseb- ze leqciebis mosmena da raki saamisod pirobe- bi ar gamaCnda, iseT adamianTan siaxlove main- teresebda, visac Cemze met codna-ganviTarebas Sevatyobdi. im periodSi ruseTidan hberda qa- lTa Tanasworuflebianobisa da inteleqtual- uri amaRlebis ideebi da mec n.-s vekiTxebodi, ra wigns mirCevda wasakiTxad.” Tavis sarCenad babilinam muSaoba stambaSi daiwyo, asoTamwyobad. muSaobda, aseve, konspiraciul stambaSi 11 da werda leqsebs. pirveli leqsebi muSaTa klasis mdgomareobasa da maT brZolas aRwerda. mogvianebiT misi leqsebi satrfialo Temasa da qalebis prob- lemebs Seexo. gamorCeulia qalTa sakiTxisadmi miZ- Rvnili leqsebi: „qalebs”, „deda samuSaoze” da sxva. „qalis miswrafeba inteleqtualuri amaRlebisaken da sakacobrio ideebis gaSuqebisaken - ai mTavari motivi Cemi leqsebisa”, - wers babilina. leqsebis weris para- lelurad is Targmnida rogorc poeziasa da piesebs, aseve prozaul nawarmoebebsac. 1918 wels Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti daarsda. babilinam verc aq SeZlo Tavdapirvelad swavla, radgan am droisTvis ori mcirewlovani bavS- vi hyavda. 1921 wels universitetSi istoriisa da filologiis fakultetze Caabara, magram meore seme- strSi socialuri SeWirvebis gamo iZulebuli gaxda, Tavi daenebebina, 1926 wlidan ki daubrunda universi- tets. rogorc Tavad aRwers, imave gaWirvebaSi ganagr- Zo swavla, romelSic Sewyvita da mxolod 1929 wels SeZlo swavlis dasruleba. swavlis bolo wlebi gan- sakuTrebiT rTuli iyo misTvis, radgan paralelu- rad uwevda ojaxisa da Svilebis movla, muSaoba da yoveldRiur gaWirvebasTan gamklaveba. samecniero muSaoba da feministuri dakvirvebebi 1931-1932 wlebSi babilina xositaSvilma qarTul literaturaze ori monografiuli kvleva Caatara. igi Tvlida, rom gansakuTrebuli rakursidan SeeZlo problemebis danaxva da momavalSi antireligiuri da antiSovinisturi sakiTxebis damuSavebas gegmavda. es kvleva unda gamxdariyo misi Semdgomi samuSaos das- ayrdeni, magram universitetma da saxelgamma1 mraval- jer uTxres uari xsenebuli kvlevis gamoqveynebaze (mweralTa avtobiografiebi, 2013). 1 saxelgami - „saxelmwifo gamomcemloba“, daarsda 1921 wels TbilisSi. 1965 wlidan erqva sabWoTa saqarTvelo“. 12 Tavis naSromebSi babilina xositaSvili ikvlevda mxatvrul literaturas da mis kritikul gadaazre- bas cdilobda. miaCnda, rom religiisa da warsulis Seswavlis dros saWiro iyo ufro zusti analizi, radgan bevri ram warsulSi gayalbebuli iyo. igi, aseve, saubrobda armenofobiis, Sovinizmisa da reli- giuri fanatizmis gaRvivebaze. (xositaSvili, 1935) mwerlis arqivSi Semonaxul publicistur wer- ilebSi Cans, rom is did yuradRebas uTmobda, rogorc Tavad uwodebs, „qalTa sakiTxebsa” da feminizms. cdi- lobda, Zvel literaturul nawarmoebebSi moeZebna ax- sna kacis gabatonebuli poziciisaTvis. igi swavlob- da Zvel berZnul da sparsul wyaroebs, sadac qalisa da kacis erTnairi, sabrZolo pirobebSi aRzrdaa aR- werili (xositaSvili, 1931). am magaliTebidan naTlad Canda, rom Tanabari fizikuri siZlieris miRweva Tana- bari wvrTnis pirobebSi SesaZlebelia. avtoris azriT, qalis daqvemdebarebuli yofa ar aris ganpirobebuli bunebrivi mdgomareobiTa da fiziologiiT. babilina xositaSvili religiis msaxurebsac akri- tikebda, radgan isini ar misdeven wminda werils, ro- melic ambobs: „ara ars mamakaci, arca dedakaci winaSe RmrTisa, aramed Tanaswor ariano“. (xositaSvili, xel- nawerebi, 1936) „Tanasworuflebianobas da samarTlianobas sarwmunoebis qurumebi qalsac da saerTod daCa- grul elementebs kacobriobisas ara am qveyniur cxovrebaSi, sadRac da odesRac, sxvagan da sxva dros aRuTqvamdnen sikvdilis Semdeg. mokled rom iTqvas[,] qristianulma sarwmunoebam qali mTlianad moswyvita aqtiur moqmedebas da pasi- urobaSi moamwyvdia igi.” - wers xositaSvili. avtori pozitiurad afasebs sabWoTa kavSiris politikis mcdelobas, erTmaneTisgan gaeminja sao- 13 jaxo da sajaro sferoebi. misi azriT, saWiroa saxel- mwifom qals Seuqmnas xelsayreli pirobebi, raTa Se- umsubuqos saSinao saqme da aqtiurad CarTos qveynis aRmSeneblobis procesSi. is, agreTve, Seexeba qalis gasamxedroebis, jansaRi cxovrebisa da menstruaciis sakiTxs: „yovelTviuri fiziologiuri movlena (menstru- acia), romlis ganmavlobaSi qalis sxeuli Cveulebrivze ufro modunebul-mosustebulia; magram qalTa sworuflebianobis didma Teoretikosma, avgust bebelma Tavis wignSi „dedakaci da socializmi” aseT mosazrebas Semdegi pasuxi gasca: „erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi ori-sami dRiT dasusteba[-]avadmyofobisgan arc mamakacia dazRveuli da amitom es garemoeba uflebas ar gvaZlevs, qali pasivobaSi momwyvdeuli davtovoT da win gadaveRoboT mis aqtivobaSi”. (xositaSvili, 1931). xositaSvilis xelnawerebidan irkveva, rom is aqtiurad akvirdeboda msoflioSi mimdinare procesebs - feministur moZraobas, sufraJistebsa da zogad tendenciebs, romlebic qalTa gaZlierebas ukavSirdeboda. is cdilobda, paraleli gaevlo qveyanaSi mimdinare procesebTan. mwerlis azriT, qveynis kanonmdebloba sakmarisad ver uzrunvelyofda qalis gaZlierebas da saWiro iyo maT Tavad aeRoT sakuTar Tavze ekonomikuri politikis warmoeba, romelic kacis kontrolisgan gaaTavisuflebdaT. is fiqrobda, rom ekonomikuri damoukideblobis miRwevis gareSe, qalebis „moralu- ri TviTgamorkveva da inteleqtualuri winsvla” Seu- Zlebeli iqneboda. qalebis gaZlierebis sakiTxSi erT-erT mowinaaRm- deged babilina xositaSvili qarTvel inteligencias, kerZod ki, mwerlebis nawils (kacebs) ganixilavda. misi azriT, rogori ganaTlebulic unda yofiliyo 14 qarTveli kaci, qalebs mainc despoturad epyroboda. avtori saubrobs usamarTlo realobaze da aR- niSnavs: „dedakacis gonebas ara nakleb mamakacisaze swyurian azrovneba! dedakacs, estetiuri SegrZneba ara nakleb aanTebda SemoqmedebiTi gaxelebisTvis! de- dakacis Tanabari monawileoba qveynis saWeTmpyrobe- lobaSi aacilebda kacobriobas or saSinel tkivils: 1) brZolas kacis kvliT, sisxlian omebiT, Sescvlida azrovnebiT kamaTze; 2) prostitucias mospobda Tavi- sufali siyvaruliT” (xositaSvili, 1925). kidev erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxi, rasac babilina ganixilavs, aris seqsualoba. is Seexeba prostitucias, makiaJs, Tavisufal siyvaruls, reproduqcias, seqsSi qalisa da kacisTvis winaswar gansazRvrul pasiur da aqtiur rolebsa da siamovnebis sakiTxs: „vimeoreb, rom qalis pasiuri roli sqesobriv aqtis Sesrulebis procesSi, ar aris misi bune- brivi daniSnuleba, aramed gamowveulia igi erTi mxriv (mamakacis mxriv) Zaladoba-damor- CilebiT, anu urcxvobiT; meore mxriv, (qalis mxriv) daTmoba-namusianobiT, anu morcxvobiT. aqedan warmoSobili msjavri, rom qalis mxriv aqtivoba avxorcobaa. Tu, erTi mxriv, aqtivoba sqesobrivi kavSiris procesSi avxorcobad ar icnoba, maSin is orive mxareze unda vrcelde- bodes rogorc moraluri ufleba da arc erT mxares ar aZlevdes damorCilebis upirateso- bas. fiziologiur kvleviT cnobilia, rom qa- lis pasiurad darCena aRniSnul momentSi iwvevs (qalis mxriv) vnebaTaaSlilobis daus- ruleblobas, radgan kmayofis miRweva mxolod aqtivobiT SeiZleba” (xositaSvili, 1925). “me veTanxmebi bebelis mosazrebas moralur sakiTxSidac, rom „qals sruli ufleba aqvs, 15 misTvis mimzidvels mamakacs dauaxlovdes sqesobrivad, rodesac amas dro da garemoeba moitans, raTa gonebriv Tu fizikur SromasTan wonasworobisTvis Tanabari sisxlis moZraoba iqnas SenarCunebuli fiziologiuradac”. gad- aWarbebuli Tu unebur-ZaldatanebiTi (yalb, meSCanur moralis gavleniT) daculi asketo- ba maznevaria jansaRobisTvis, daZabunebuli sulisTvis.” xositaSvilisTvis problemuria ormagi standarti seqsualur normebTan dakavSirebiT. is, rac qalisT- visaa dasagmobi saqcieli, kacebi imiT amayoben. avto- ris guliswyromas iwvevs is faqti, rom amgvar klas- ifikacias qalebic iziareben. kidev erT imdroindel problemas studentebze gaTxovili qalebi warmoadgendnen (xositaSvili, 1925), romlebic didi gaWirvebis fasad inaxavdnen saku- Tar qmrebs sazRvargareT, rom maT kargi ganaTleba mieRoT. isini ki, ukan dabrunebulebi, colebs ucxa- debdnen, rom maTTan saerTo aRar aqvT, ganviTarebiT Zalian CamorCnen maT da ganqorwinebas iTxovdnen. es iyo mTeli Taoba axalgazrda qalebisa, romlebic ga- naTlebis, qmrebis gareSe da mcirewlovani bavSvebiT aRmoCndnen mitovebulebi. qveyanaSi dawyebul emansi paciis process mowi- naaRmdegeebic h
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