[Kyoto University Class Handout] Elementary Grammar Guide of Sahidic Coptic 1: Alphabets and Copulative Sentences ( Being Revised Version )

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[Kyoto University Class Handout] Elementary Grammar Guide of Sahidic Coptic 1: Alphabets and Copulative Sentences ( Being Revised Version )
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  CSGJ’s Grammar Guide of Sahidic Coptic Alphabets and Copulative Sentences So Miyagawa 1 Coptic Alphabet 1.1 Similar to Latin Alphabet 1 a b e i k m n o t z a b e i k m n o t z*[ɑ] ∼ *[a] *[v] ∼ *[ß] *[ɛ] / *[ə] *[i] *[k] *[m] *[n] *[ɔ] *[t] *[dz] ∼ *[z]can’t vase pen / envelope key kait mom nun audience tie zone 1.2 Similar to Greek Alphabet d l p r c u w y *[d] *[l] *[p] *[ɾ] *[s] *[w] *[o] ∼ *[oː] *[e] ∼ *[eː]d l p r s u ô êdog lip put ray sun cow oh koine ; v , ' x *[th] ∼ *[t h ] *[ph] ∼ *[p h ] *[kh] ∼ *[k  h ] *[ps] *[ks]th ph kh ps kscat-hole uphill duck-hole eclipse six 1.3 Came from Demotic f s h j [ ] f š h t  j k   j ti*[f] *[ʃ] *[h] *[t  j ] *[k   j ] *[ti]five shine hire Katja cat tea 1.4 Special Pronunciation ei ou =N gg aa i u  e n ng aa*[i] ∼ *[iː] *[u] ∼ *[uː] *[ ə n] ∼ *[n ̩ ] *[ŋɡ] *[ɑʔə]sea cool kitten tango Ah-ah 1 An asterisk(*) means this is reconstructed pronunciation, brackets ([ ]) mean this is a phone, not a phoneme, and ( ∼ )means this is ‘free variation’. 1 ! Kyoto University Coptic ClassLecturer  1.5 Read Aloud (1)  ,rictoc khristos ‘Christ’(2)  iycouc iêsus ‘Jesus’(3)  aggeloc angelos ‘angel’(4)  =rro e rro ‘king’ 2 Copulative Sentence ‘A is B’ 2.1 Copulative Pronoun an=g-  I am  an=g-ou-aggeloc  I am an angel. =nt=k-  You (male) are  =nt=k-ou-aggeloc  You (male) are an angel. =nte-  You (female) are  =nte-ou-aggeloc  You (female) are an angel. an-  We are  an-hen-aggeloc  We are angels. =ntet=n-  You (plural) are  =ntet=n-hen-aggeloc  You (plural) are angels. 2.2 Copula pe te ne Subject is ... Masculine FeminineSingular   pe te Plural  ne • Without a subject noun or pronoun, the subject of the sentence is interpreted as 3rd person (Heis ..., She is ..., It is ..., They are ...)• Even if the subject is either feminine or plural, pe is often used.(5)  ou-aggeloc pe He is an angel.(6)  ou-aggeloc te She is an angel.(7)  hen-aggeloc ne They are angels. 2.3 Independent Pronoun • Emphasizing the pronoun. “As for me, I am .../It is me who is ...”• In a copulative sentence, it is used with a copulative pronoun or a copula.Singular Plural anok  I  anon  we =ntok  you (male)  =ntwt=n  you (plural) =nto  you (female) =ntof  he  =ntoou  they =ntoc  she (8)  anok pe gabriyl. It is me who is Gabriel.(9)  anok an=g-gabriyl. As for me, I am Gabriel.2  2.4 Indefinite Pronoun • Singular  ou- ex. ou-aggeloc a angel• Plural hen- ex. hen-aggeloc angels 2.5 Remember (10)  aggeloc angel(11)  h=mhal servant(12)  =rro king(13)  noute god(14)  eiwt father (15)  joeic lord, master, mistress(16)  provytyc  prophet Quiz 1 Read Aloud and Translate into English (17)  gabriyl pe ou-aggeloc (18)  gabriyl ou-aggeloc pe (19)  =ntof ou-aggeloc pe (20)  =ntof pe ou-aggeloc (21)  ou-aggeloc pe (22)  anok pe gabriyl (23)  anok an=g-gabriyl (24)  an=g-gabriyl Translate into Coptic (25) You are angels.(26) It is her who is a mistress.(27) He is a father.(28) I am a prophet of the God. (A of the God = A =m-p-noute )(29) As for them, they are kings.(30) She is a prophet.(31) It is us who are servants.(32) You (male) are a servant.(33) I am a king.3
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