Is the sexual murderer a unique type of offender? A typology of violent sexual offenders using crime scene behaviours.

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 24
8 views
PDF
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Document Description
Is the sexual murderer a unique type of offender? A typology of violent sexual offenders using crime scene behaviours.
Document Share
Document Tags
Document Transcript
    http://sax.sagepub.com/  Treatmentof Research and Sexual Abuse: A Journal  http://sax.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/08/28/1079063214547583The online version of this article can be found at: DOI: 10.1177/1079063214547583 published online 1 September 2014 Sex Abuse  Jay Healey, Eric Beauregard, Anthony Beech and Shannon Vettor Sexual Offenders Using Crime Scene BehaviorsIs the Sexual Murderer a Unique Type of Offender? A Typology of Violent  Published by:  http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of:  Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers be found at: can Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment  Additional services and information for http://sax.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Email Alerts:  http://sax.sagepub.com/subscriptions Subscriptions:  http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Reprints:  http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Permissions: http://sax.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/08/28/1079063214547583.refs.html Citations:  by guest on September 2, 2014sax.sagepub.comDownloaded from by guest on September 2, 2014sax.sagepub.comDownloaded from    What is This? - Sep 1, 2014OnlineFirst Version of Record >> by guest on September 2, 2014sax.sagepub.comDownloaded from by guest on September 2, 2014sax.sagepub.comDownloaded from   Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment 1  –22© The Author(s) 2014Reprints and permissions:sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/1079063214547583sax.sagepub.com  Article Is the Sexual Murderer a Unique Type of Offender? A Typology of Violent Sexual Offenders Using Crime Scene Behaviors  Jay Healey 1 , Eric Beauregard 2 , Anthony Beech 3 , and Shannon Vettor  3 Abstract The empirical literature on sexual homicide has posited the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender who is qualitatively different from other types of offenders. However, recent research has suggested that sexual homicide is a dynamic crime and that sexual assaults can escalate to homicide when specific situational factors are present. This study simultaneously explored the utility of the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender hypothesis and sexual homicide as a differential outcome of sexual assaults hypothesis. This study is based on a sample of 342 males who were convicted of committing a violent sexual offense, which resulted in either physical injury or death of the victim. A series of latent class analyses were performed using crime scene indicators in an attempt to identify discrete groups of sexual offenders. In addition, the effects of modus operandi, situational factors, and offender characteristics on each group were investigated. Results suggest that both hypotheses are supported. A group of offenders was identified who almost exclusively killed their victims and demonstrated a lethal intent by the choice of their offending behavior. Moreover, three other groups of sex offenders were identified with a diverse lethality level, suggesting that these cases could end up as homicide when certain situational factors were present. 1 State University of New York, Plattsburgh, NY, USA 2 Centre for Research on Sexual Violence, School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, British Columnia, Canada 3 University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK Corresponding Author:  Jay Healey, State University of New York, Plattsburgh, 101 Broad Street, Plattsburgh, New York, 12901, USA. Email: jhealey@sfu.ca SAX XXX10.1177/1079063214547583Sexual Abuse Healey etal. research-article 2014  by guest on September 2, 2014sax.sagepub.comDownloaded from   2  Sexual Abuse Keywords sexual murderer, sexual homicide, sexual sadism, sexual violence, violent offenders, sexual deviance Introduction Historically, the study of sexual homicide has suggested that sexual murderers are a unique type of offender and are qualitatively different from other types of sexually violent offenders (Ressler, Burgess, Douglas, Hartman, & D’Agostino, 1986). Prior research suggested that sexual murderers could be differentiated from nonsexual mur-derers on such characteristics as sexual motivation (Ressler, Burgess, & Douglas, 1988), victim characteristics (Chéné & Cusson, 2007; Firestone, Bradford, Greenberg, & Larose, 1998; Oliver, Beech, Fisher, & Beckett, 2007), precrime factors (Chéné & Cusson, 2007; Langevin, 2003), crime scene behaviors (Chéné & Cusson, 2007; Firestone et al., 1998; Firestone, Bradford, Greenberg, & Larose, 1998; Langevin, Ben-Aron, Wright, Marchese, & Handy, 1988; Ressler et al., 1986; Salfati & Dupont, 2006), developmental factors (Nicole & Proulx, 2007), psychopathology (Langevin et al., 1988; Proulx & Sauvêtre, 2005), and deviant sexual preferences (Dietz, Hazelwood, & Warren, 1990; Langevin, 2003). Conversely, there is emerging research that has suggested that sexual murderers are not qualitatively different from offenders who sexually assault (Beauregard & Mieczkowski, 2012, Mieczkowski & Beauregard, 2010). This perspective assumes that situational factors and not constitutional factors differentiate sexual homicide from sexual assault. Situational factors, such as the pres-ence of a weapon, or whether the offender was intoxicated at the time of the crime could result in an escalation in violence and possibly result in homicide. The current study simultaneously investigates both perspectives through the use of a typological approach on a sample of violent sexual offenders who caused physical injuries—or death—to their victims. Sexual Murderer as a Distinct Type of Sex Offender Hypothesis The notion that sexual murderers constitute a unique type of offender can be traced  back to Krafft-Ebing’s (1886/1965) seminal work  Psychopathia Sexualis  where he makes an explicit link between sexual sadism and sexual homicide. Specifically, Krafft-Ebing (1886/1965) identifies at least three distinct types of sexual sadists who are likely to kill their victims for a sexually satisfying purpose: (a) sexual sadists who gain sexual enjoyment from stabbing or injuring their victim, (b) lust murderers who find the act of homicide sexually exciting, and (c) sexual sadists who enjoy mutilating corpses. The latter two types are intrinsically linked to sexual homicide in that the offender either finds murder sexually exciting or the offender kills to mutilate dead victims.This link between sexual sadism and sexual homicide has continued to be a differ-ential feature and, often times, a causal explanation of sexual homicide (see Chan & Heide, 2009). Specifically, early empirical research suggested that sexual sadism was by guest on September 2, 2014sax.sagepub.comDownloaded from   Healey et al. 3 the driving force behind the sexual murderers’ desire to kill (Brittain, 1970; Burgess, Hartman, Ressler, Douglas, & McCormack, 1986; Dietz et al., 1990; Langevin et al., 1988; Ressler et al., 1986). Furthermore, the sexually sadistic fantasies of sexual mur-derers were reflected in their crime scene behaviors and often involved acts such as  binding, torturing, mutilating, and humiliating their victims (Ressler et al., 1986). Although the proposition that sexual sadism was the driving force of sexual homicide was not new, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is considered to be the first to have developed an empirically based typology of sexual homicide (Ressler et al., 1986). Using a sample of 36 convicted sexual murderers, the FBI proposed a dichoto-mous typology—the Organized   and  Disorganized   offenders. Using a mixture of crime scene behaviors and background variables (e.g., familial structure, intelligence, child-hood upbringing), the authors developed behavioral profiles. Based on the offender’s  behavior at the crime scene and his choice of victim, law enforcement could infer  personality, developmental, and lifestyle characteristics, which in turn could aid in the investigation and apprehension of the offender. The Organized   offender is intelligent, carefully plans his 1  offense, leaves very little evidence at the crime scene, and chooses stranger victims (Ressler et al., 1986). This well-defined script (i.e., the offender’s knowledge structure or sequence of decision making), was thought to represent the Organized   offender’s deviant sexual fantasy to kill his victim (i.e., sexually sadistic fantasy). Conversely, the  Disorganized   offender often attacks victims he knows, does not plan his attack, and kills in anger (Ressler et al., 1986). According to the FBI, the  Disorganized   offender is not aware of a sexually deviant need to murder his victim but instead was violently angry at the time of the offense and situational factors (e.g., wit-ness present in the area or cooperation from the victim) influenced the lethality of the offense.The FBI typology has been partially supported by empirical research (Beauregard & Proulx, 2002; Proulx, Beauregard, Cusson, & Nicole, 2007; however, not in Canter, Alison, Alison, & Wentink, 2004). Similar to the FBI, Beauregard and Proulx (2002) found evidence for two types of sexual murderers: the sadistic and the angry types. In many respects both the sadistic offender and angry offender resemble the FBI’s Organized   and  Disorganized   offenders, respectively. Like the Organized   offender, the sadistic sexual murderer plans his crime and targets strangers.Additional research has identified more than two types of sexual murderers (Beech, Fisher, & Ward, 2005; Beech, Oliver, Fisher, & Beckett, 2006). Unlike the FBI, Beech and colleagues have consistently identified three distinct types of sexual murderers: (a) the calculated pain infliction, (b) the grievance driven murderers, and (c) the rape plus murder group (Beech et al., 2006). Interestingly, both the calculated pain infliction and grievance drive groups resemble both the FBI’s and Beauregard’s typologies ( Organized  /  Disorganized   and sadistic/anger, respectively). The calculated pain inflic-tion group, much like the Organized   and sadistic groups, is motivated to kill to carry out deviant sexual fantasies. These offenders have rich fantasy lives, plan their crimes, are more likely to mutilate their victims and often kill their victims by strangulation or stab- bing (Beech et al., 2006). Grievance driven murderers harbor a great deal of anger toward women in general and often kill their victims in a fit of rage. Similar to the by guest on September 2, 2014sax.sagepub.comDownloaded from 
Similar documents
View more...
Search Related
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks