Internet de las Cosas: del Concepto a la Realidad

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Esta jornada explicará el concepto de Internet de las Cosas (IoT) y su encaje dentro de las últimas tendencias tecnológicas como Big Data o blockchain. Describirá las tecnologías que lo hacen posible. Ofrecerá ejemplos de aplicación de IoT a diferentes ámbitos como salud, ciudades inteligentes o industria. Identificará su grado de desarrollo actual. Explorará su potencial implantación en nuestras entornos vitales e influencia en nuestras actividades cotidianas en un futuro cercano.  
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  • 1. 1 Internet de las Cosas: del Concepto a la Realidad CETIC (Centro de Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación), Vitoria-Gasteiz 29 de Mayo de 2018, 18:00-20:30 Dr. Diego López-de-Ipiña González-de-Artaza dipina@deusto.es http://paginaspersonales.deusto.es/dipina http://www.morelab.deusto.es @dipina
  • 2. 2 Abstract Esta jornada explicará el concepto de Internet de las Cosas (IoT) y su encaje dentro de las últimas tendencias tecnológicas como Big Data o blockchain. Describirá las tecnologías que lo hacen posible. Ofrecerá ejemplos de aplicación de IoT a diferentes ámbitos como salud, ciudades inteligentes o industria. Identificará su grado de desarrollo actual. Explorará su potencial implantación en nuestras entornos vitales e influencia en nuestras actividades cotidianas en un futuro cercano.
  • 3. 3 Agenda 1. ¿Qué es la Internet de las Cosas (IoT)? 2. Encaje dentro del ámbito tecnológico actual: Web de Datos, Cloud Computing, Big Data y Blockchain 3. Tecnologías que hacen posible IoT: RFID, NFC, Arduino, Fog Computing, Blockchain … 4. Áreas de aplicación de la IoT: Smart Cities, Salud e industria 4.0 5. Casos de éxito de IoT 6. IoT como habilitador de Servicios Inteligentes Personalizados 7. Conclusión
  • 4. 4 Misión de la Future Internet (FI) • Ofrecer a todos los usuarios un entorno seguro, eficiente, confiable y robusto, que: – Permita un acceso abierto, dinámico y descentralizado a la red y a su información y – Sea escalable, flexible y adapte su rendimiento a las necesidades de los usuarios y su contexto
  • 5. 5 Los Pilares de la Internet del Futuro • La Internet del Futuro consta de 4 pilares apoyados en una nueva infraestructura de red como base: – Internet Por y Para la Gente – Internet de los Contenidos y del Conocimiento – Internet de los Servicios – Internet de las Cosas
  • 6. 6 Arquitectura de la Internet del Futuro
  • 7. 7 Internet de las Cosas (IoT): Motivación • ¿Quieres saber cuántos pasos has andado? • ¿Los kilómetros que has conducido? • ¿Los watios que has consumido? • ¿Cómo mejorar la eficiencia y seguridad en tu fábrica? • Internet de las Cosas te puede decir eso y mucho más
  • 8. 8 IoT: Infografías
  • 9. 9
  • 10. 10 Internet de las Cosas … conectando información, gente y cosas
  • 11. 11 Evolución hacia IoT • Desde la Web a la Web Social hacia IoT
  • 12. 12 Historia IoT • El concepto de dispositivo inteligente conectado fue acuñado en 1982 con máquina expendedora conectada en CMU • El artículo de Mark Weiser en 1991 "The Computer of the 21st Century", y los conceptos académicos de UbiComp y PerCom fueron el germen de IoT • El término IoT fue acuñado por Kevin Aston del MIT en 1999
  • 13. 13 Internet of Things: Definition (I) • Internet of Things (IoT) is a dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” have identities, physical attributes and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces and are seamlessly integrated into the information network. from the IERC (the European Research Cluster on Internet of Things http://www.internet-of-things-research.eu/) – Things can range from tagged objects (RFID, NFC, QR codes, Barcodes, Image Recognition) to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), machines, vehicles and consumer electronics
  • 14. 14 Internet of Things: Definition (II) • The internet of things (IoT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, buildings and other items— embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity that enables these objects to collect and exchange data – Opportunity for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit – Encompasses technologies such as Smart Grids, Smart Homes, Intelligent Transportation and Smart Cities
  • 15. 15 6 facts about IoT 1. IoT is the term used to describe any kind of application that connected and made “things” interact through the Internet 2. IoT is a communication network connecting things which have naming, sensing and processing abilities 3. IoT is the next stage of the information revolution, i.e. the inter-connectivity of everything from urban transport to medical devices to household appliances 4. Intelligent interactivity between human and things to exchange information & knowledge for new value creation 5. IoT is not just about gathering of data but also about the analysis and use of data 6. IoT is not just about “smart devices”; it is also about devices and services that help people become smarter
  • 16. 16 Sensors
  • 17. 17 Connectivity
  • 18. 18 People & Process
  • 19. 19 IoT = Sensors + Connectivity + Processing for People
  • 20. 20 Internet de las Cosas • Red universal de objetos interconectados y direccionables basada en protocolos de comunicación estándar – IoT exhibirá un alto nivel de heterogeneidad, combinando objetos de distinta funcionalidad, tecnología o campos de aplicación – Protocolos semánticos noveles serán desarrollados para permitir a IoT escalar y coordinar a los millones de objetos que nos rodean – RFID y redes de sensores proporcionan un mecanismo de bajo coste y robusto de identificación y sensibilidad al contexto • El uso de Internet pasará de modelo request/reply a push-and-process
  • 21. 21 Internet de las Cosas: mucho más que cosas inteligentes
  • 22. 22 IoT: 3rd wave of Internet • Key attributes that distinguish IoT from “regular” Internet, as captured by Goldman Sachs’s S-E-N-S-E framework: Sensing, Efficient, Networked, Specialized, Everywhere
  • 23. 23 Internet of Things (IoT) Promise • There will be around 25 billion devices connected to the Internet by 2015, 50 billion by 2020 – A dynamic and universal network where billions of identifiable “things” (e.g. devices, people, applications, etc.) communicate with one another anytime anywhere; things become context- aware, are able to configure themselves and exchange information, and show “intelligence/cognitive” behaviour
  • 24. 24 Internet of Everything (I) • CISCO view: “From the Internet of Things (IoT), where we are today, we are just beginning to enter a new realm: the Internet of Everything (IoE), where things will gain context awareness, increased processing power, and greater sensing abilities” – IoE brings together people, process, data, and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before-turning information into actions that create new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented economic opportunity.
  • 25. 25 Internet of Everything (II)
  • 26. 26 How big is IoT?
  • 27. 27 Rapid growth of connected things "Fixed" computing Mobility/BYOD Internet of things Internet of everything Source: Cisco IBSG, 2013 (you go to the device) (the device goes with you) (age of devices) (people, process, data, things) 1995 2000 2013 2020 200M 10B 50B
  • 28. 28 IoT Predictions (by 2020-22) 7,1tn IoT Solutions Revenue | IDC 1,9tn IoT Economic Value Add | Gartner 309bn IoT Supplier Revenue | Gartner 50bn Connected Devices | Cisco 14bn Connected Devices | Bosch SI http://postscapes.com/internet-of-things-market-size Peter Middleton, Gartner: “By 2020, component costs will have come down to the point that connectivity will become a standard feature, even for processors costing less than $1 “
  • 29. 29 How does IoT Work?
  • 30. 30 Tipos de Internet de las Cosas • Al menos dos sabores: – Consumer IoT (CIoT): orientada a consumidores – Industrial IoT (IIoT) • Industria 4.0
  • 31. 31 Consumer Internet of Things (CIoT) • The Consumer Internet of Things (CIoT) represents the class of consumer-oriented applications where: – Devices are consumer devices, such as smart appliances, e.g. refrigerator, washer, dryer, personal gadgets such as, fitness sensors, Google Glasses, etc. – Data volumes and rates are relatively low – Applications are not mission or safety critical, e.g., the failure of fitness gadget will make you, at worse, upset, but won’t cause any harm – CIoT applications tend to be “consumer-centric”
  • 32. 32 Sectores IoT de Consumo
  • 33. 33 IoT impulse: Smart Cities, consumer objects, mobile sensing, smart metering
  • 34. 34 Personal data: SmartWatch & Health- promoting Data Devices
  • 35. 35 Quantified Self & Life Logging • Quantified self is self-knowledge through self-tracking with technology – Movement to incorporate technology into data acquisition on aspects of a person's daily life in terms of inputs (e.g. food consumed, quality of surrounding air), states (e.g. mood, arousal, blood oxygen levels), and performance (mental and physical) • Self-monitoring and self-sensing through wearable sensors (EEG, ECG, video, etc.) and wearable computing  lifelogging • Application areas: – Health and wellness improvement – Improve personal or professional productivity • Products and companies: – Apple Watch, Fitbit tracker, Jawbone UP, Pebble, Withings scale
  • 36. 36 SmartWatch Comparison 36
  • 37. 37 Google Glass • Su misión es producir un ubiquitous computer de venta masiva – Lanzadas para los desarrolladores de Google I/O por 1500$ en el año 2013 • Renovadas en 2017 con Google Glass Enterprise Edition • Muestra información disponible sin utilizar las manos, accede a Internet mediante órdenes de voz, de manera comparable a Google Now
  • 38. 38 • Google Home – Features • Amazon Echo – Alexa API Audible Computing • Apple AirPods – Comparison
  • 39. 39 Features of Audible Computing Products Google Home Amazon Echo Price $130 $180 Responds to voice commands Yes Yes Always listening Yes Yes Wake word "Okay Google" Alexa, Echo, or Amazon Music streaming options Google Play Music, YouTube Music, Spotify, Pandora, iHeartRadio, TuneIn, others Amazon Prime Music, Spotify, Pandora, iHeartRadio, TuneIn, others Smart home partnerships Nest, SmartThings, Philips Hue, IFTTT Nest, Ecobee, SmartThings, Wink, Insteon, Belkin WeMo, Philips Hue, Lifx, Big Ass Fans, IFTTT, other devices via "skills" Customizable appearance Yes No Output to stereo system Yes, via Chromecast No (yes with Amazon Dot) Synced audio playback to multiple devices Yes, to any Google Cast device No Personal assistant highlights Search Google, get a personalized daily briefing, check traffic, add items to calendar, make a shopping list, make a to do list, check flight status, track a package Add items to calendar, make a shopping list, make a to do list, check flight status, track a package Other features Cast to your TV with Chromecast, launch and control Netflix and YouTube via Chromecast, send photos to your TV via Chromecast Order a pizza, play a game, arrange an Uber pickup. Echo has an ever-growing list of 900+ skills and counting https://www.cnet.com/news/google-home-vs-amazon-echo/
  • 40. 40 Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) • The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) represents industry-oriented applications where: – Devices are machines operating in industrial, transportation, energy or medical environment – Data volumes and rates tend to be from sustained to relatively high – Applications are mission and or safety critical, e.g. the failure of a smart grid has severe impact on our life and economy, the misbehaving of a smart traffic system can threaten drivers – IIoT applications tend to be “system centric”
  • 41. 41 Differences among IoT, M2M & CPS • Not clear cut distinction, these terms are often used interchangeably; – M2M– Machine-to-Machine • TelCo world origins, tied to the network implications of connecting machines rather than people, explosion of # of connections with limited bit-rate, ETSI is the main standardisation body; think of telemetry applications – M2M is the glue of the IoT – CPS – Cyber Physical Systems • Merging real and virtual (cyber) worlds, focusing on systems that based on duly sampled representation of the physical world can intervene through digitized actuators to change behaviours in the physical world; think of car ABS – CPS is the science bricks behind IoT – IoT hailed as a broader concept, where the focus is more on wide applications
  • 42. 42 Smart Grid • A Smart Grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operational and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficiency resources.
  • 43. 43 Telehealth system Connected Healthcare: Internet of Things Examples in Health Care: https://dzone.com/articles/connected-healthcare-internet-of-things-examples-i
  • 44. 44 Connected Health
  • 45. 45 Industry 4.0 • Industry 4.0, Industrie 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution, is the current trend of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies. – It includes cyber-physical systems, the Internet of Things and Cloud Computing. – Industry 4.0 creates what has been called a "smart factory".
  • 46. 46 Industria 4.0 y IoT
  • 47. 47 Industry 4.0: Features • Ingredients for paradigm shift in manufacturing: autonomous robotics, additive manufacturing (3D printing), cloud computing and sensor technology (IoT) • Opportunities for innovation in terms of: – Smarter industrial processes – New business models and – Customised products • The new technological wave builds on the concept of cyber-physical systems: profound interaction of the real and virtual worlds in the manufacturing process
  • 48. 48 Top 5 IoT Trends to Look Forward to in 20181. Trend #1 Digital Twin – Virtual clone of the real-world thing. It is a looking glass into what’s happening within physical assets. Allows product developers to create, test, build, monitor, maintain and service products in a virtual environment 2. Trend #2 Blockchain – Blockchain for IoT can transform the way business transactions are conducted globally by providing a trustworthy environment. Advantages: a) build trust; b) reduce costs; and c) accelerate transactions. 3. Trend #3 Security – As we rely on connected devices to make our lives better and easier, security is a must. All participants in the IoT ecosystem are responsible for the security of the devices, data and solutions. 4. Trend #4 SaaS – Many IoT implementations still require on-prem implementations. There will be more (and very clear) instances where Software as a Service (SaaS) is a viable option. 5. Trend #5 Cognitive Computing – For over a decade we’ve connected things with unique IP addresses. But the commoditization of sensors, processors and memory now make it possible to makes everyday things more than just connected … they can be intelligent. It increases the possibilities of what can be done with edge analytics – making sensors capable of diagnosing and adapting to their environment without the need for human intervention.
  • 49. 49 Blockchain in a nutshell 101 • A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed and incorruptible digital ledger that is used to record transactions across many computers. – Distributed network of computers (nodes) – where each node contains a chain-of-blocks – where each block contains a ledger with a list of transactions – where each transaction is incorruptible (i.e. cryptographically secure) – & is linked to the previous transactions for the resource it is representing. • Exemplary use cases: – Record exchange of money; – Document the way goods move through a supply chain; – Create and store contractual agreements. • Main features: – Distributed – the record is shared, and cannot be controlled by any single person. – Permissioned – each participant has secure access to the record – Secure (incorruptible) – records are safe from manipulation; consensus is required. Everything stored on the blockchain is encrypted. • H(this-block) = H(H(previous-block) + data-in-this-block)
  • 50. 50 Blockchain in a nutshell
  • 51. 51 Blockchain, how does it work?
  • 52. 52 Blockchain in action
  • 53. 53 Blockchain in more detail
  • 54. 54 Blockchain: IoT example (I) • Imagine the journey a perishable foodstuff (say milk) takes from farm to consumer – The dairy farm: milking and initial storage; – Processing: transportation to a dairy processor for testing, pasteurizing and packaging; – Transportation: shipping in refrigerated trucks to retailers like supermarkets or convenience stores; – Retail: storage in a refrigerated display unit; – Consumption: customer purchase and consumption. • The difficulty with a supply chain like this one is that there isn’t a single, synchronized record of the transaction from beginning to end. – Blockchain is a single, synchronized, immutable record of every transaction, visible to everyone in the supply chain. – The blockchain ledger records the sequence of transactions from the beginning to the end of the supply chain. • URL: very interesting infographics about IoT and Blockchain at: http://www.sepaforcorporates.com/payments-news-2/what-is-blockchain-5- awesome-infographics/
  • 55. 55 • Example: instrumenting the supply-chain – “transport of perishable food stuffs (such as milk) is regulated by specific conditions that ensure it arrives at the point of purchase safely” • IoT & Blockchain solution: Connected sensors for data transmission – Individual packages containing milk are instrumented with an IoT-enabled temperature sensor – The sensor stores temperature data locally and sends it via an IoT Platform to the blockchain – The blockchain stores the temperature data, where it can be viewed by each party to the transaction • IoT with blockchain can help businesses keep tabs on the health of their products at every stage of their journey through Smart Contracts. – Those contracts stored on the blockchain could specify certain conditions that must be met. Controlled temperature might be one of these. • Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HJ1W4vHPDFY Blockchain: IoT example (II)
  • 56. 56 Internet of Things: Challenges 1. To process huge amounts of data supplied by “connected things” and to offer services as response 2. To research in new methods and mechanisms to find, retrieve, transmit and process data dynamically – Discovery of sensor data — both in time and space – Communication of sensor data: complex queries (synchronous), publish/subscribe (asynchronous) – Processing of great variety of sensor data time-series and streams: correlation, aggregation and filtering 3. Ethical and social dimension: to keep the balance between personalization, privacy and security
  • 57. 57 La Ecuación de IoT • Conexión en red de cosas aumentadas da lugar a agregación de datos y orquestación de servicios para mejorar procesos THING IT [HW | SW] THING-BASED FUNCTION [Local | Business models known] IT-BASED SERVICE [Global | Business models required] Example SERVICE: Send ambulance in case of accident (detected by sensors) Example FUNCTION: Drive from A to B A B Source: University of St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Elgar Fleisch
  • 58. 58 Information flow in IoT • Information within the Internet of Things creates value in a never-ending value loop consisting of 5 stages (CREATE … to ACT):
  • 59. 59 IoT Key Components
  • 60. 60 IoT Architecture Sensing Layer Communication Layer Management Layer
  • 61. 61 Ecosistema de IoT
  • 62. 62 What do IoT apps do? (I) • Remote monitoring • Distributed and accurate sensing • Tracking location / presence (inventory, belongings) • Tracking usage / conditions • Statistics data generation – Health, energy, traffic etc. • Actuation
  • 63. 63 What do IoT apps do? (II)
  • 64. 64 Dominio
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