INTEGRATED CONCEPTUAL ECOSYSTEM MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR THE FLORIDA KEYS/DRY TORTUGAS COASTAL MARINE ECOSYSTEM

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  NOAA Technical ReportOAR AOML __ and NOS NCCOS __  noaa Of  fi ce of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research MARine Estuarine goal Setting (MARES) for South Florida INTEGRATED CONCEPTUAL ECOSYSTEM MODEL DEVELOPMENT FORTHE FLORIDA KEYS/DRY TORTUGAS COASTAL MARINE ECOSYSTEM Subregional Principal Investigators:  J. Ault J. Boyer J. FourqureanC. Kelble T. LeeV. LeeworthyD. LirmanD. Loomis J. LorenzP. Ortner Contributing MARES Project Staff: P. FletcherF. GayaniloG. JohnsD. LeeF. MarshallW. NuttleAtlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological LaboratoryMiami, Florida July 2012 NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION  INTEGRATED CONCEPTUAL ECOSYSTEM MODEL DEVELOPMENT FORTHE FLORIDA KEYS/DRY TORTUGAS COASTAL MARINE ECOSYSTEM Subregional Principal Investigators:  Jerald S. Ault 1  Joseph N. Boyer 2  James W. Fourqurean 2 Christopher R. Kelble 3  Thomas N. Lee 1 Vernon R. Leeworthy 4 Diego Lirman 1 David K. Loomis 5  Jerome L. Lorenz 6 Peter B. Ortner 1 Contributing MARES Project Staff  :Pamela J. Fletcher 7 Felimon C. Gayanilo 1 Grace M. Johns 8 Donna J. Lee 9 Frank E. Marshall 10 William K. Nuttle 111 University of Miami, Miami, Florida 2 Florida International University, Miami, Florida 3 NOAA-Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, Florida 4 NOAA, Of  ¿ ce of National Marine Sanctuaries, Silver Spring, Maryland 5 East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 6 National Audubon Society, Tavernier, Florida 7 Florida Sea Grant, Gainesville, Florida 8 Hazen and Sawyer, Hollywood, Florida 9 DJL Environmental Economic Consulting, Honolulu, Hawaii 10 Cetacean Logic Foundation, Inc., New Smyrna Beach, Florida 11 Eco-Hydrology, Ontario, Canada July 2012NOAA Technical ReportOAR AOML__ and NOS NCCOS UNITED STATESDEPARTMENT OF COMMERCEMr. John BrysonSecretary NATIONAL OCEANIC ANDATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATIONDr. Jane LubchencoUndersecretary for Oceans andAtmosphere/Administrator Of  fi ce of Oceanic andAtmospheric ResearchDr. Robert S. DetrickAssistant Administrator  -ii- Disclaimer NOAA does not approve, recommend, or endorse any proprietary productor material mentioned in this document. No reference shall be made toNOAA or to this document in any advertising or sales promotion whichwould indicate or imply that NOAA approves, recommends, or endorsesany proprietary product or proprietary material herein or which has as itspurpose any intent to cause directly or indirectly the advertised product tobe used or purchased because of this document. The ¿ ndings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and donot necessarily represent the view of the funding agency.  -iii- Table o Contents List o Acronyms .........................................................................................................................................iv List o Figures ...............................................................................................................................................v List o Tables ................................................................................................................................................v Introduction .................................................................................................................................................1 Three Distinct Subregions within the South Florida Coastal Marine Environment ..............................2Oceanographic Processes Connect Subregions .....................................................................................3Building a Foundation for Ecosystem-based Management ...................................................................6 The MARES Model Framework ...........................................................................................................8  The Florida Keys/Dry Tortugas ..................................................................................................................10Physical Setting ...................................................................................................................................10Regional In À uences on the FK/DT Subregion ....................................................................................10Human Population ...............................................................................................................................11  The Florida Keys/Dry Tortugas Integrated Conceptual Ecosystem Model ..............................................13Conceptual Diagram: Picturing the Ecosystem ..................................................................................13Applying the Model in the Florida Keys: Water Quality Improvements ............................................14 Drivers and Pressures: Sources o Change ...............................................................................................16Far-Field Drivers and Pressures ..........................................................................................................16Near-Field Drivers and Pressures ........................................................................................................18 State: Key Attributes o the Ecosystem ....................................................................................................20Water Column ......................................................................................................................................21Fish and Shell ¿ sh ................................................................................................................................21Benthic Habitats - Coral and Hardbottom, Seagrass, and Mangrove ..................................................21 Ecosystem Services: What People Care About ........................................................................................23Attributes People Care About: Linking State to Ecosystem Services ................................................24Valuing Ecosystem Services ................................................................................................................25 Response: Taking Action ..........................................................................................................................26Controls on Development ....................................................................................................................26Protected Areas ....................................................................................................................................27Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Protection Act ......................................................27Dry Tortugas National Park ..........................................................................................................29State and Federal Partnerships. ....................................................................................................29Ecosystem Research and Monitoring ..................................................................................................29Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact .......................................................................30 Acknowledgments ....................................................................................................................................31 Reerences ................................................................................................................................................31  -iv-Appendices Water Column ...............................................................................................................................38Fish and Shell ¿ sh .........................................................................................................................55Habitat: Coral and Hardbottom ...................................................................................................70Habitat: Seagrasses ......................................................................................................................91Habitat: Mangroves ...................................................................................................................109
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