INDONESIAN JOURNAL FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES Volume 5, Number 1, PDF

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 39
67 views
PDF
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Document Description
INDONESIAN JOURNAL FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES Volume 5, Number 1, 1998 CHRISTIAN-MUSLIM RELATIONS IN INDONIESIA: THE CHALLENGES OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CIENTURY Ibrahim Abu Rabi' THE MYSTICAL FIGURE OF HAJI AHMAD
Document Share
Document Transcript
INDONESIAN JOURNAL FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES Volume 5, Number 1, 1998 CHRISTIAN-MUSLIM RELATIONS IN INDONIESIA: THE CHALLENGES OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CIENTURY Ibrahim Abu Rabi' THE MYSTICAL FIGURE OF HAJI AHMAD MUTAMAKIN FROM THE VILLAGE OF CABOLEK (JAVA) Edwin Wieringa K. H. HAS VIM ASY'ARI'S CONTRIBUTION TO INDONESIAN INDEPENDENCE Latiful Khuluq ISSN 8llJDIA1 Indonesian Joumal for Islamic Studies Vol. v. no. 1, 1998 EDITORIAL BoARD Ham11 Nasulrorr Maslulrrr M. Quraih Slrilmll A. Azrz Dalrlmr M Sntnn Effendi Nnbrlnh Lubis M. Yrman Yrrsuf Komaruddin Hidavnt M. Din Synmsuddi11 Muslim Nnsution Wa/tib Mrt'l/ri EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Azvumnrdi A::ra EDITORS:. Sniful Mujnm Hendro Prnsr!tto folrmr H. Meuiemnn DJdin Synfruddin Ali Munlumi[ A SSIST ANTS TO THE EDITOR; Arief Sublran Oman Falhurrnhmnn Hetri Nuroni ENGLISH LANGUAGE. ADVISOR Donald Potter ARABIC LANGUAGE ADVISOR. Nu rsnmnd CoveR DESIGNER: 5. Priuka STUOIA lslamtka (JSSN ) is n jormtal published qum terly by tire /ns/r/rll Agamo lsla!ll Nrgeri (lain, Thr Stale lnslitute for Islamic Studies) Syarif Hulayatu/lnlr, Jakarta. (S TT DEPPEN No. 129/SK/DITJEN/PPG/STT/1976) and pnnsnred by the Department of Rrligious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. It SJitcialtzes in Indonesian Islamic studies, and is intnrded to communicate orrgirwl rrsrnrches and crtrrent issues 011 the subject. This journal tuannly welcomes contributions from scholars of related discrplines All artu:les published do not necessnruy represent the views of u;,ouma/, or other mstitutions to which it zs nffilrateti. Tiley are solely the views of t rt' authors. The arllcles contampd 111 this joumallrnve bl!rll refrmd by the Board of Editors. Alirman Hamzah Administration of Islam in Indonesia Abstract: Thae is a common assumption in modernization theory that religion represents an obstacle to modern social development. Despite this assumption, and despite the adherence of lndonesia5 New Order ideologt-,es to modernization theory, the Indonesian government still recognizes the positive contribution to social development provided by religion. The continued important role given to the Depa-rtment a/religion in the administration of religious affairs poims to the government's admission of the positive role of religion in society. The proclamation of Indonesian independence on August 17, 1945, has pushed the government to think seriously about the place of religion in stttte ttdmt'nistration. Since the concept of a modem -seculttr stttte is limited to social, political, and economic problems of state-and accordingly does not recognize religion as a part of state administration- an attempt to accommodate the creation of an office of religious ttjfairs in Indonesia became a long and difficult process. Si1-1ce its existence,. the Department of Religious Affairs, formerly called the Ministry of Religious affairs, has struggled to gain national recog11ition. The existence of the Departmem of Religion was made theoretically Ill Studi11 fsltrmikn, Vnl. 5, No. I, 19911 possible 1.n Indonesia because of the recogmuon of Belief in Almighty God tls the first principle of the state ideology ofpancasila (Five Principles). Pancasila, as many Indonesians believe, is a kind of political consummation of the search fm a uniting foundation for all tehgrous communities lh ing in the connn-y. Therefore, Pancasila became an ideological basis for rhe narion-stace by establishing a non-theocra.tic yet not quite secular state-polity. The go vernmental system ensures ch.lt politics and religion remazn separate and that Islam will not become a11 official religwn in rhe countr y. Yet, because of recognition of the Belief in A/might:)' God the stare has a definite role in supporting and supervising the,. eligiois life and tcth'ities of the nation. The governmen(, then, conside, s religious pohcy as an ntegral part of public policy in state t'ldminim ation and the honndarzes beru een religzon and scare become slightly hltn1 ed. This symbz'otic relationship betu:een the administtation of religious affam and scare policy, u.1hich in essence includes some matters of personal faith, sounds very unique. A variety of argaments have been made, especza I ly by those who defend the escablishmen t of such a Department, co explarn the necessity of its existence. One argument for its exzstence was that such a deparonem ofreligious affairs had already existed during Dutch colonial times, as u.je/1 as under the brief period of japanese occupation. The mosc apparent arghment for the existence of the Department was based, howez er, on the traduionalu orldvzew of the Islamic concept of govemmentzhar existed in the Middle Ages which viewed political community as that U/hich U17lted political and religious atllhority within the single stmcture of state pou_ er, According ro this viewj a government, as well as being obliged to regulate society for the sake of achieving better co11ditions of life, mttst take care of the implemencation of Di7;ine Law, or Syariah. Of particular interest, was the dynamic role performed by the Depart menr of Religious Affairs in Indonesia. At first, the Department merely accommodated aspects of religion in the fields of islamic /au.: and educatzon. Bm as the Depamnent development tt began to include in zts jurzs. diwon the affairs of the other main religious commtmities: the Chris dans, Catholics, Hindus_. and Buddhists. The Depcatment now represents the religious aspirations of chose five religions whz'ch have an official recognztion in Indonesia. Alirman Hamzah Administrasi Islam di Indonesia Abstraksi: Bagisebagian kalangan, agamaseringkali dipandang sebagai faktor penghambat pembangunan masyarakat. Akan wapi lldak semua hal yang berkaitan dengan pembangunan, baik dalam kehidupan politik, ekonomi dan sosia/, terhambat oleh fakrorfakwr keagamaan. Bah kan. tidaksedikit foktor keagamaan memainkan perrm yang san gat posi rif dalam pembangunan masyarakat. Dalam dalam k'.aitan itulah, para pendiri negaralndonesia, sejaksemula telah memikirk-.an untuk melaku kan semacam bzrokratisasz masalah masalah keagamattn, khususnya aga malslam. Diperolehnya kemerdekaan politik bangsa Indonesia, pada 17 Agus tus 1945, telah memaksa bangsa ini tmtuk memikirkt-m di mana agama d11./am kehidupan administrasi negar11. 0/eh karena bawsan batasan kon sep ten tang negara modern sermgkali ditekankan pada aspek-aspek sosial dan politik, dan dengan sendirinya tidak memasuk.kan faktor agama ddlam penyelenggaranaan negara, upaya memberi ruang cerhadap admmistrasi keagamaan rnerupakan proses rum it. Proses: rumic ttulahyang hingga deu:asa ini tercermin dalam pasang dan surutnya pertm 1 keberadaan dan fimgsi administratif Departemen Agama yang du/unytt disebut Kementerian Agama. Secara teoritis, posisi adminzstratifdepartemen Agama di Indonesia cerlecak padd. posisi agama dalam dd.sar naga, a, yaitu Pancasila. la mem pakan suatu bemttk konsumasi politik dari upaya mencari lanriasan per satuan dariseluruh komunicas-komuniras agama agardapat terciptasuatu basis ideologi politik yang dapat diterima semtta pihak dengan cara men gambil bentuk otoricas negara non-teokratis. Denga11 demiktan, diasum sikan bahwa ada suatu siscem pemerintahan dengan bentttk kekuasaan yang memisahkan an tara ocoritas politik dd.n otoritas keagamaan. Akan tet4pi pemerintah turut bertanggungjawab dalam mendukzmg dan membma kehidupan keberagamaan masyarakat. Negara adalah pihak yang menjadikan kebijakan keagamaan sebagai bagian integral dari adminis trasi peme, intahan. Hubungan sirt1biotik an tara administrasi ketgamaan dengan kebijakan negara ini, yang te-rjalin rum it dan mencakup hampir seluruh masalahmasalah keimanan, menumg terdengarunik. B(?rbagai argu.men dikedepankan umuk menjelaskan keunikan itu; dari yang bemada politis hing ga penelusuran akar kelembagaan sen-tpa )'ang bersifat historis. Namun yang pasci, adminiscrasi urusan agr;:ma (Islam) di Indonesia pada dasamya dilandasi pandangan sistem religio-politik D adisional dengan konsepsi penggabungan fimgsi keagamaan dan policik yang dimainkan oleh suatt-tsrrlktur yang wnggal. Menurutpandangan ini, pemerintah selain berkeu;ajiban mengathr masyarakat dengan tujuan tempta nya ketertiban dan kesejahteraan, juga diwajibk.n untuk melaksanakan berlakukanya hukum Tuhan. Ba angk.ali yang menarik umuk dikemukak:a11 di sini add.lah watak dinamis dari perjalanan ptoses administrasi Islam di Indonesia. Pad.a masa-masa awa!nya, kantor jawatan pemerintahan yang mengatur umsan keagamaan ini hanya mencakup bidang-bidang kefslaman saja. A lean cetapi, dalam perkembangannya, kantor ini mengakomodasi kepencmg anke-pentingan kelompok agama lain yang hidup di Indonesia: Kristen, Katholik, Hindu dan Buddha. Di sini,fungsi D,r:partemen Agama di Indonesia hanya dalam batas urusan-urusan )'ang memang bersifat publzk. .i /.Jd.ir.cb,./.ls/,imivwob ll:;. :...:LS J t I :...\.:.o L:l l U I.:r J..li)ll I ;..h...u.j..:l\ IL u..k...a.k.; - IJ, I w. 1...:... t WWI..s-._r:.. r...-- r u,..., d(.; J L.i:.l l 6 1 i \...; 4..;.J I L:..J I )--..: i l_r\)11 r- ., ilk j...:,,j ;y)ij c 'J)J ;;.)yj' ilk.}..!...lh J.a... \ ) J- -i.y } ' c_la.. ji L...;...,)I I L.. J.y I.J.:: I _; ;;L: - i4ji u. Y J t5:.. 'lil v.)u -:;t) d)l...i:... 'l!l y.j...a.; '..L:..L:...,)l-)1 1 ul'l _r dj..ijj,) 1 IL -l.A)J _; J _ :; -:;i 'i' t'..l:......l:j.:l. 4 ))\.Q..:...)II u.j..... _J \,.,.': ;;1;141'?.l:.:-u,.JJI Jp o)jj,... - ' l;j) l Studin lslnmilu. Vul. 5. No. I. 199$ ,;.L..;..; i \ '\ t -, _,:L:_ i _;.G }'k...; \ '\ r.u j 'I' A.}..0j.).; p1 o)j.:, )l. 'YI o): 'ji t 1:.0 ;., 4 J.;;) j}l h J., l.,_)-...:.:.-1 L...kv.s.iJI,;L...LJI... C: ), ;y)l.'y I Lo'YI o} \;--JJ ):11 j)l l ;y)l.-')11 u'yi..::.- .-l::. -1.s.i.ji y-._a..:;...(j y )C,..!\ JJ = J!.)\... 'YI..0JL...J1 J,La} l,;.l IJ ;L.Jill _:t).,..j..._uj1.jlji I...l.U \ La_;.; i ' J1 J.:. - \ - ' 1 J J y..l.ll.j_r--.:jj I.J (Dernak) -; d..- \ ( Mataram).. 1)\_j. wu;ll. L..J I \ \,.;; J......, L: _{ y..._;.: J '.WI_: I L I.} t.; (Sayyidin _,-.a..iu il.. (Surakarta) I.;Jt)'JJ'- J (Yogyakarta) J,JJ I.: o).) i Panaragoma Kalifarul/ah) (Raja 1/){ldal) _rjl J p'-! t.; (Minangkabau) J'-!L A(-ld.Or..b.f.fsltimrvy.tb 117 u....: ' r-1-j.u11 ) J.u11 ils:. -4 1 1p)U U;.) ;. 1 ;.,Uj \ a...)l. \.!.ij \ I ' ;;......r.. v- J' '._;-.._;, J Li;k,)L... I.) I J \ J.f----',.J )II... r--ji p. o rli.:r(:j r-l o _rl!2ji o..l::. J, I.!.iJ..} olj\ ilo ...! LA.l l.._) t_.kui ;\ Wl ls p r-ji 1L... I L: J I..:...4y JI...;..:;.;- (Penglwlu) L-- \...j)l: \ c-- j\...:.})1)..s_,....lij (Penghulu Naih) v. 4-:Jl L.. J (Mod in, lebe, kayim. ami/. kad!zi)...,...w\11)..::.,.\),l;w . L ...;\...L:) \ _;L-::... I ;v J- (;.J\..::...,;\5 \ jj -- ' Y.WI J\1 I.:.r J),J4SU u; _,.....::.,...h...::.\,;u...ui..j.-. '...ui I -:. I ' J.,..-4.L._....t;)l\ J - - J '-' u.j - J I J U '-'.. J. A\.kL J f J. t1li -,...u\.jt..-:; I ;v y (;.ji 4-: i yz _)I...U I o ).) \..::...,;l)) -:!.r J \ 4-'l.h.L... J._,...6.;,:u I.:.r v-l..i J _r-;jl.).:_r.._-(ji, \...U I d.-).-ji l,_;j'! Lei_;'-.'.\ _)I _:l _,LJI ) 4-:;,:l;;.JJ )\...\ J o_;l.;.,....ij -,JI -.:-.L...L.U...1 J r--:--- J \.r - c t,_;f # d...j i...ut o)j; 1 _,zj,..:.,.b I J )' J_p, ;;)..:...bl o) j.: ij - '..: c.';.rj' J..: _u,.)_r-::. 11 _; p_,.jt II Afimtn ; HmtAh j \r!...u l IS' _rji o) l J -.La.i\1 :..'p ;; ) j.l.ji. I. \')..., :11; l.r-j I.:; p if _,_(;.JI ...J\ ol '- )L.. )II ;;,b)'\ t)y.:r 0 _,...L...JI J _._j; L...)WI? ;; ;_;ijj\.:, \...:,;u _;.:.JI L.a...J \..0j:,.)i.) ).;-!.), 11 L,a.. j .5 \ \ ! Jy sji...u \ GI,')L}JI o_y..ui :..'y.} ! d..ij\.:... }J r Lo,j)\.i:..., :11; 0--:!..UI j. --1.j JWI [_JJ.J .5.: .5 _,. -i Li.y \...5 -y._ )'I.Y )L..)' I ;)' \._.P?..i.l; - ')L )'\ \-h:..j IJ u l L ...i}J S';LI r; -...u:}l.,..; L.:...UI 0 1\ oji.j J,:.L;..;I. Ji. ); , _;... t \ - '-' ' l.r-o..l -J\ \f-' l: J w..j I _,.1JI.) Y' I o II,:.\.;._...\.sjJI }I I.y Jl) \ u.) \.b J L... .-..:.,.;tS,.)')WI l_.,i..lj_r.:r -:)p i L I..:.lLil;, ---)\...)11._,-k..JIJ. -S::... L:.:: \,(Shurnubu) r j J/-'j1.s?...U I L:: IDJ,(Shumuka) r jjr.ji -J I s...ui.jpl _,L:- r-11 J.:...) J '.J.o.J. I., Ji._? 4-:-- ' t!ltfi lslnmikn, Vol..5, No. /, 1991! !0 ;;;:: i! :;.. c c.r. -r ):. (: r-.r. t ',. \ ( (\ l. f t 1: [1-. ' _, t - 1 { :\ r., -L r r,; E c \ t g: f & 1 t 't \ r (' f t \ o.l t t 'r ' \- \.- '1, '1 - r! ' 1 l- - L (. ) :..:: :-- ;c o.l ' ' [ (t.. l L ' ; f f r; c( t \' c,_ 1.,: l r '! c -t:.t: t f t b t lo - c -.. r l::-,e f t. f. -' 't t.. -. (. - t.: C t. ('\.. t.c c. - \ '-.. l' { - G, (.-...l- :j, 't: - /;; [ t 'y - - [ - - fl\,_;;:- c. t G, tc l t t t: 2 f ' (; o C. L_ \;- V - , t. ' t '[ [ \ \; v t- ( f ;l' c- i 1:, f h t c.. :t r t - -.,_.. [ -, - E,. c \... c t t:.. - t '» o.l' C.: C, - C, t. t- _ : - - c \ c. - t. ;- t r'k- l,,e....,, o ::....,._ \., ....,. \ ;, t_ - C' }' J [ l..- r '-. \.,. ' - _! ' - t - ' ' ' \..., ',._...,. f' {. :t ;: -t ': r' ' 1 'k[ b t ' (;_ l t 1::: f '. 'f.:- \ c . f: ('t -, -,. ' \..... ):;_ l--_ l o. ' 1... c. e '-.. c- \..... c (, '-.. - \1 \,. 'l '' ( - f _ I', IJ I. [ 1.!:-:.. - ( v.. '. (., - - \ o.l,, -. -L, l 17\ C. '-L 'l_ \ ( '-;;:-.. : [ .. C c;., a_ -.;._ji L: ..lJI c l_ril Js-.. Li ' t.;)..rk l \ '.}..lu:..ji c '.? YI -Ji.. (Ahmad Suhardjo).;l: y..l... i L f. 1...&-':J I \.}.. 'J \ -:.r-.r-jij I,:_, ;;.:... Yl -.. ly..-ll i.j_,!..!.j I o)jj.,l:..il,)) j L .;.iJ'I.r-'JI.. 'J')\.1._:.,...L-;:.(, ).JI J l -. I. II :e. JU,J l...i.ll I,)l )$. - v- J- v..r- 1..;-...: _,Ajl I :.r' \ j-ji...h) t l-.:.:.:-1._} u..:.;..;l,. C l_rjl.. 'i \ 'to j ': A - '(,.:/ o _,:.JI.), _? _rji I _; L (K.H. Abudardiri)c _r-.; _r.i c_ll I,y y r--y) r J (KH. SaJeh Syuady) L5 e:jl...a c_ W I I.,L..a.;.i _; (M. Sukoso Wirjosapmro) J_} _,.;L- y.._r.._;,_ i...l.i) (Banyt1mas) '- '.. _,;1'- J _,.k-ji L.. I.:;-- ' 0 r:...a c W l \..s--)i,._;_;- i ii)j_; i } uli:lij o)jj )!.r...u I J_y.;, )li \ i - I - I 1.J. -., l...w: l- - 0.) j_j '- 0.Y ' 0 If. (Muhammad.r L;.;...U ; r+ ' _,;..;1...G _; Jjr Jr5...UI_; t( Dr. Mawardi) t. JJL... J.r5...U\J,Nmsir) (M. y )..J--' j )S _;.. (Dr. Marzuki Mahdi)...; ),:? _,.jl _;.11 L ...lil..).. i,# _; Kartosudarmo) L:-ll: l j J\S' J-'._r-; )I JU.i ) '' v \;:. l,.jl Ja... .- J o JJ L:.J I _,... JI /' J (Muhammad Hatta) JL.::,.._rl \.; -...y ..:..ji )J,''A...,l ...UI Jp o)jj Srudin blttmilt, Vol. 5. No. /, 1998 cwi J - JJI 0p1 o)j) i '(' t P 'f ' .4-J.r..)J J} (MuhammadRasyidi) 1.S_; J/y l L: f..jj Jfi,JJI.) p 1 ;;)j).} _,;LQJI }I J-).:.;-- r 4.)LJ\.. o)j)' o L.;...; Jl - - UIL;.)l.,:)fl ( yu JJJI Ji ( \) u=l' \ t 0 _;_,:-JJI 01._,t U -:rk'y )JJ' 0r cr) ::J'..\ '}' \ \ I..., ' '.J\..4.JI ',) r u J.J L:.? w _?L .. JL!:--.:r c-ji..::...l..l .h J_W r.)\...u..:...l L _, .:.JI.:.;-- _,G.....:...3}I if J \' ' _,.il l o }I,;,;, _,.;;_..))lj\ J: \i:-1 :J I...h.;, -..._ / T.._;.-! -.4.} A...:. .J t_ \-.:;:;,.\ rw.j i.,? 0 _,.-l...ji :..\) ) ; L;,.jl......;ly...L.II, i \ 1 t : \ \ i.} j )\..i.:... )II - ru I Ji _,...JI.y 0,J..\1 0 r-:ji ;; )jj _;. '..:.II od I ' .-..J W I _.i _; o..j.. ll\.,:_:\5 ..u I J - - u J J l&-ol&-oj..ui I) I aj'jj J IJ.AI r-jj 4. [._,r--& L...S,y..JJI J o)jj..l+._cdl W I :Jl \..ili._,.:!1._;.j,j,) \ y..jji.)_r-.;jl Stodi J,f,.mrltrt, l'ol. J, No. /, 1998 c..::. C, r.l. c r.v ('l (\-- 1 G; :,_ c..::. ('I (1 [ l...,. :..._..,,... -,-... ',..,AI -:;-- -..,.. [ - r..._..... ;...!_ L- r, :t.. I._. -..P _t 1...P --...: o( ( [.. - I.. j.- ' '1. t -; L- s... [, _' o 1 ' v v t 1.. e,,,... v r :t -. '-:... l... L [ V_r h '-t. 1.. r..::, ', ' 'c- C 1.{;_ - -t.. t' L (...: t,.$ e..:. : c.. I. t 1=:-,_... _ ( -;.- f.e. r t - 0. r -. -.L I... I. t.:. l l '..:_, o[ r_ 0 - _.:.!....L- 1. r l. 1.; l... =-... t r'l.. 'l 't- c - ' I 1..,. '\.. '1 C..._ c. ). 1 r f. {.:,:, ; lr.. :f. rl-. f [ (;) (.'.. 1- _,.,.... L r..,.t o...l l;: r:-t : t' 0 r l - b... - s 'c. \ - - (, l L 0[' ( t \= G 1_.. 1 t- l.t- C.P t -.L' - '\.. [ 'L 1 lg. l t o v ;,.. - ro - - t: c.. r t ' 1 : 'X r n, y-, '-. _ -. - ,. '-f', - l!!.. L _ ':;- t f \... l -[ '-r \ - e: c- '-- - \,...;.;.- \... \ (_ ' tf \!: - '.... -::-- r l:::- s: r. '-f :. t.. r-.. 9\.. \ '1'- c. I. f. 1:_ L 'u- v L k - L f c_.::, ;: (' 1: - \--- 1:_.t_ - Z.., [ (0 Z. '= 0. ct...., r o - t - - if; 1..,. - - Ill,_..._, ' '. t.l:' [ )- (. [ t. ;.- :- 1 l lr - I r.. t-. \.,. s: 's-,,,,. t l.. - \_, _..., t I \J r 0 =s t::. - - C.. '-r. 01 c_. t.l -. Ill 9 '{'I 1 -o (, I' ( ;t _ : ( T :C .:... '!.- I [...t.. G. :... 'i' i.,;' 'l ;: \ 1 '. l L t. r:v.r - 1. L...r t.: 1:_ 03.[ - - ' - 1 \ l..._, - ' _r:, d._.,}- J.) j\.,-3 o.i - )::1\y j- j ;;J J..ll\ :.._.,.4 LS.:::...;t.S::,; \ \ -, V L 14-JI o..u...::. J.b) ' to J_r...-..l\1 J' o.)wi ;;J J..lll } y.:'. i los_) \._,..b.. ..::. \)} - '-:-'? wl.i ).. ;. J I -J4r J. -i 0....) 1 J.i.: c r:...l\1 \ i l_.r l \...; _?f JL.a.; 'i\ V L )_,Rjl..::. - i J _.LY CiliWI d.: l \4-JI b..ll\ 0p1 o)jj Ji ) wl...o ;, n ..lll oji JL ......_,_,.,W I :.../' J '..ll l 0 y...:..ll.r..j} :i...,.:\. . U;) 0 y-:..-_r.\1 ---; i l.,.. d d.:i.y}_; _r}l J. i J./.;...,..J.. lij ')b lll ) y:l.) J-L ... j. :.b d.j j..l\1 Jl.kl..i: JI._j I L... ')I...LY \) ;.)-' .:_..,? J rji y.-,j -.?' _,;jl,j J ))}I --.:...owl._,...5ull,..9l.:.:ll..ll.:.:ll JGi._.l_...,.:,.r...J - J _. v- 7 J v 1.- L. TV') b..;l:j I ) y::--41.._) . WWI ;;J _;...lll _}.t.st.; 'L.:1. \j I,j. - :'JL;;....).h: ) I. _:... WI t... y...!,.;-./.. I..;,... -.J.. J Sl udi [J/amik. llo/. 5, No. /, / 998 r, t 'f,. f' t t- E.. r.. ' '- ': ',.. r'l ' 'h. [ ' :--. - ' t:.. :... -(. { C - - f :. \_ T. ri, E \..c- r;.l C' C. t (' -f 1 '1- :c. [ ' l :;: -, \.,. ' t_. !1 ' ( ';',. t '. f ' - t - L ( l 'h. (..: ( l '- 'i 't 1. c t. t.l 'l L \... L - , r \.,. -L --. (:: -,(, c. t - l :.- t ';.,.. t.f. :: z. - \:. r :. r, 1:; t r 1 f. l c.. I r.c -;: (,'- (. '. s [ c '' - )..r. r.' t. l - r r- ' r. - f.,.., \:. :r.,. t. '- ' ' C. - f -.. t- \.,. - c.. r. t r, - I.. L -,i. ( ( ' 'i ' r.. v-,.:,.-:-, c.: c.... t... t..... ::' L ( l l f c t. t - r - 1, 1:,., 'f - t '!,. F f - 'E. [ 't _: [,, t :,r - t.l 't....f. s. f ' ' c.. '. f' 1, ' c,. - l f. -- f.f ' - \. 't,_ [ - ' 1 - l -t - 't,_ '- f' ' . \... t :;;. -. '... - L..s 1.. I ( ;o.: c f.:.; t E ; t .c l :: [ :: c :.. :- f [ \- \ I I I I I I I I 'f.:..- - C .,. .. n { -..s '- :- ' (=... 1 t.l,- ; ;.; - : f -t. E - t '- ';: ;:- \\ ; \), 1._;, 4JJ1.: pi o)j} J1 J- 1.: 1.5' Jl.r- i--' J,L..WI l... l : \L...,;i l.:r...;j JL.S',._:_j J)l r-9) d:2 )I 1.:l\), JJ I _;:l ij,1 \.; J-UI i\ it U JJ I 0p1 o)j} I,. 1 I J I I I I I I j. I -- I 4 -- J r--::- J.:lW J \J }I d...ju:.._:.,l).:lt...r-- - 'YI y...lll.) _,:-;jl,_:). 1 '-: .j), )L :_.,L..._;..J I ), 1,1..5 _H I...s-J4 1 fj '..s-ygj I I fj,j..::., \ J.yWI l.rjij,d...jwi ilil...l;..::j.-c- 1. j _,lj..f.)...::....j \,y,:)...\$- '-:--;l. .o.!..0.}) '.;...L:l l :?.r ) Srwli.. lsim11il.... Vol. J. No. J. 1998 10 ::: :;,. r ;:. ) ' - - - t G. f' ( G.. :. r:. :r,._.. -l. 1 G. \ \_ [ \ s () t. cf \ ':f' -... r G., :. t r r 0. ' ( -..:-- f! - t - a 2. \- c. [.. c. f f:: f.. '5 -t 't. f t r:. [ \.; (. :: C r- t t' t..! ( c };, 'f f' )._ t 1 : (\ -:f (.. ' I r ( \ ( 0,c- 'ft....,.. \.L ',..! e - -L f..t f..;-.f fi. r - 1. c...e. '5f c- c. 0 E 't- r '-f-. 1- r. 's.- f ' t [ r l-.. =,..! - t - \- -: 1 ): t t' :[ (.. ; C!- l' -. r - L t - - '[ ('....;-.c-.. -r )_ [.. l.o l:- L \ \... 'b- -. l.o c. 't.. -,. v - c ;:,.._ 1 =.i- \.' L.- E:.. r r [ t ' - -:: - '{, \ cf!. f - - y t r i!. ( - e r f: G\ 1 ;! { \-.t:_ (Y' (.[ J. l.r. r-.r E-Ll [ ( t. [ll f1 1 c -: - -- \.=- c,;- t c; - -. I- :. - J- L - tc: t- L. - i- _..c- ( c. '1 \. r - '-. _r. ::c_. I_ 1 t t:. ' ' 1 f:-.,. l -;. .:. 't: 'L '.. ['.:;. - 1:= t O l \.,.. \. E - ' c ,t_ ' (. 1:' L. ' L.G (.. t :f' - 1\ \, z 2 : r... f: E_ \t e,, C t c t. - = ( '-f-. 1:! c - 0' \ L ;;. 1::: C e: (' E L '::I - -- l \ c- c- ' f. \ c- \!;.:... - r t.. - e c-. v. 1.,._. '( '-:.-. '- E..- v.. r l ' ' c - c.-,.!!.: t-._. ;t t _
Similar documents
View more...
Search Related
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks