Identification aid for the Apoidea (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) and the bees (Apoidea: Anthophila)

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Identification aid for the Apoidea (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) and the bees (Apoidea: Anthophila)
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  1. Diagnosis: Insects of the superfamily Apoidea can separated from other Hymenoptera by the following characters: • Pronotum extended ventrolateraly and encircling or nearly encircling the thorax behind the fore coxae (a). • Metapostnotum enlarged -into what is known as the propodeal triangle-(b). Job aid for the recognition of bees and their relatives Produced by A. H. Smith-Pardo Ph.D., National Apoidea Specialist for USDA-APHIS-PPQ, South San Francisco, CA. Bees and their closest relatives belong to the superfamily Apoidea of the order Hymenoptera. This superfamily is then divided into two subgroups: the Anthophila or Apiformes (the bees, of which there are nine families worldwide) and the Spheciformes (with three families: Ampulicidae, Crabronidaeand Heterogynaidae). This job aid is intended to separate hymenopterans in the superfamily Apoidea and to separate bees from their closest relatives. Superfamily APOIDEA ab   Coxae   Pronotum Metanotum Propodeal Triangle Mesonotum  2. Diagnosis (continuation): Other characters used for the diagnosis of Apoidea, include: • Pronotum short (c, arrow) • Pronotallobe separated from tegula(d) • Mesopleuralsuture fused with the intersegmental suture (e) • Hind basitarsuslonger than other tarsomers(f) Job aid for the recognition of bees and their relatives Produced by A. H. Smith-Pardo Ph.D., National Apoidea Specialist for USDA-APHIS-PPQ, South San Francisco, CA. Superfamily APOIDEA dfe   c PronotallobeTegula  3. Diagnosis: Bees can be separated from other Apoidea by the following characters: • Body with some plumose/ branched setae (g) • Hind basitarsusbroader that subsequent tarsomeres(h) • Metasomalsegment (T7, internal) of female membranous mid-dorsally (i, arrow) • Sternal segments 7 + 8 of males metasoma (S7 & S8) modified and concealed (internal) by S6 (j) Job aid for the recognition of bees and their relatives Produced by A. H. Smith-Pardo Ph.D., National Apoidea Specialist for USDA-APHIS-PPQ, South San Francisco, CA. Superfamily APOIDEA: Anthophila/ Apiformes (bees): gg   hi   T7T8 sting j ♂   ♂ Photo from Gonzalez & Griswold (2011) g  4. Diagnosis (continuation): • Basitibialplate on hind legs present in females (k) • Pretarsalclaws cleft (l, arrow) • Flexion lines of forewings cutting across first recurrent vein (m) • Presence of scopa (pollen carrying structure) in non-parasitic females, (n) shows some examples Job aid for the recognition of bees and their relatives Produced by A. H. Smith-Pardo Ph.D., National Apoidea Specialist for USDA-APHIS-PPQ, South San Francisco, CA. Superfamily APOIDEA: Anthophila/ Apiformes (bees) k lm   n
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