Garland, C. (2012) 'We Teach All Hearts to Break: On the Incompatibility of Education with Schooling at All Levels, and the Renewed Need for a De-Schooling of Society Published in Educational Studies, 48:1, pps.30-38 Print ISSN 0013-1946

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Educational Studies: A Journal of the American Educational Studies Association, Special Issue: “Anarchism… is a living force within our life…” Anarchism, Education and Alternative Possibilities
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  This article was downloaded by: [Christian Garland]On: 30 January 2012, At: 11:42Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH,UK Educational Studies: A Journalof the American EducationalStudies Association Publication details, including instructions forauthors and subscription information:http: // “We Teach All Hearts toBreak”: On the Incompatibilityof Education with Schooling atAll Levels, and the RenewedNeed for a De-Schooling ofSociety Christian Garland aa University of WarwickAvailable online: 30 Jan 2012 To cite this article: Christian Garland (2012): “We Teach All Hearts to Break”: On theIncompatibility of Education with Schooling at All Levels, and the Renewed Need fora De-Schooling of Society, Educational Studies: A Journal of the American EducationalStudies Association, 48:1, 30-38 To link to this article: PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLEFull terms and conditions of use: article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes.Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan,  sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone isexpressly forbidden.The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make anyrepresentation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up todate. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should beindependently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liablefor any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damageswhatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connectionwith or arising out of the use of this material.    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   C   h  r   i  s   t   i  a  n   G  a  r   l  a  n   d   ]  a   t   1   1  :   4   2   3   0   J  a  n  u  a  r  y   2   0   1   2  EDUCATIONAL STUDIES, 48: 30–38, 2012Copyright C  American Educational Studies AssociationISSN: 0013-1946 print / 1532-6993 onlineDOI: 10.1080/00131946.2011.637259 “We Teach All Hearts to Break”: On theIncompatibility of Education withSchooling at All Levels, and the RenewedNeed for a De-Schooling of Society Christian Garland University of Warwick  ‘We teach all hearts to break’ was graffiti spray painted on a school building inLondon’s Notting Hill Gate in 1968/69 by the Situationst-influenced group KingMob cited by two former members in Paddington Bear (1988). ‘Once upon a timethere was a place called Nothing Hill Gate.’ Retrieved Sept. 30, 2011, from http:// is for anarchism, and what can very broadly be termed autonomism —thatis,themanydifferentschoolsofnon-LeninistMarxism—ofparamountimportanceincreating a society worthy of humanity, but this is not a simple formula of counteringthedominantmodeofinstitutionalindoctrinationknownasschoolingwithlibertarianpropaganda, though that may have its place. The importance of education can besaid to be “an-end-in-itself” prefiguring free social relations of community andreciprocity, comprised of autonomous individuals capable of comprehending boththemselvesandtheworldinwhichtheylive.Suchaprocessoflearningandacquiringknowledgemustalsonourishintellectandotherformsofintelligence,justasintellectand other forms of intelligence nourish the acquisition of knowledge. This paperwill seek to critically explore some of the key issues involved in an anarcho-Marxistcritique of schooling and develop the basis for what might constitute an alternativeview of education which could be said to be in radical opposition to such schoolingat all levels. Correspondence should be addressed to Christian Garland, University of Warwick, Coventry,United Kingdom. E-mail:    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   C   h  r   i  s   t   i  a  n   G  a  r   l  a  n   d   ]  a   t   1   1  :   4   2   3   0   J  a  n  u  a  r  y   2   0   1   2  EDUCATIONAL STUDIES 31 Education is for anarchism, and what can very broadly be termed autonomism —that is, the many different schools of non-Leninist Marxism—of paramount im-portance in creating a society worthy of humanity, but this is not a simple formulaof countering the dominant mode of institutional indoctrination known as school-ing with libertarian propaganda, though that may have its place. The importanceof education can be said to be an end in itself, prefiguring free social relationsof community and reciprocity, comprised of autonomous individuals capable of comprehending both themselves and the world in which they live. Such a processof learning and acquiring knowledge must also nourish intellect and other formsof intelligence, just as intellect and other forms of intelligence nourish the acqui-sition of knowledge. It can reasonably be said that this is the diametric opposite of schooling at school-age level, but also increasingly at higher level too, speakinghere of the sustained assault on universities to turn them into production linesfor the social factory. In the United Kingdom, where I am based, this is espe-cially acute, but more on the situation further on in this article. Indeed, as IvanIllich noted, “For most the right to learn is confused with the obligation to attendschool”(1971,7).Inourgrimcontemporarysetting—bothintheUnitedKingdomand United States—this could be further qualified by adding, “and in some casesattend—and agree to spend the rest of their lives paying for—university.”Beginningwiththeinstitutionoftheschool,theshortcomingsofsuchanexperi-ence are instantly apparent, and especially for any anarcho-autonomist standpoint.Of course, certain basic and very necessary skills, both formal and more informalsocial skills, may be developed there, but, it must be said, this is largely in spite of,not thanks to, such an environment, which in its institutional as for its social form,is frequently a difficult and—going back to the very first years—an unhappy andtraumaticexperience.Thestraightforwardlyauthoritariantrainingofunquestionedacceptance and submission is contained in the very fact of being there, over whichthe student has no choice, but is obliged not to question or risk being labelled aproblem and face possible expulsion with all the attendant issues of delinquency.The institutional form of what the late Paul Goodman (1966) called “CompulsoryMis-education” is especially unfortunate, but so too is the content: the impositionof arbitrary hierarchical authority embodied in the teacher and obedience to therules which circumscribe this. The actual subjects to be studied are imposed top-down,verymuchatoddswithanyapproximationofreallearninginoroutsideofaclassroom,whichisatwo-wayprocessbetweeneducatorandlearner.Similarly,asIllich and others have previously noted, learning is an ongoing process not limitedto institutional settings.The curricula of any typical secondary school—and I am aware that I amdrawing on the particular UK experience here—is largely one-size-fits-all, witha range of compulsory subjects arbitrarily handed down to the student—via theteacher—regardless of their interest or aptitude, fragments of which must thenbe regurgitated in tests and exams to be measured in terms of success or failure,    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   C   h  r   i  s   t   i  a  n   G  a  r   l  a  n   d   ]  a   t   1   1  :   4   2   3   0   J  a  n  u  a  r  y   2   0   1   2  32 GARLAND depending on performance. This readymade stratifying of school-age studentsserveswelltheendofschool-leavingwhich,asidefromtherelativejoyofreachingthe end of such an experience, is to provide capitalism with fresh slaves. Indeed,thefactthathyperdevelopedeconomieseducatetheirpopulationsforlonger,albeitat very different levels, encapsulates the double-bind of capitalism itself: the moregeneral wealth increases, the more ways must be found to limit and enclose it,thus reproducing the capital–labor relation. In terms of the cultural capital spokenof here, this can be rendered as the more educated people are, the more must thiseducation become devalued and rendered obsolete in terms of fitting them intoemployment—sofarastheirlabormaybeneededatall.Itmightwellbecontendedthat the most significant contribution toward the production of a reservoir of laborthat schooling makes, is in offering conformity and servility; and secondarilyqualifications of varying levels. For the majority are, after all, to be disciplinedand skilled for the labor process: specifically, their subordinate role within it.The hierarchical and bureaucratic experience of schooling, in which the capac-ity to think critically is not only to be discouraged, but expunged at all costs, hasits basis in wider capitalist society, thus forming the early basis for the compliantand docile future wage laborer capable only of following instructions given tothem by a boss, and carrying out repetitive and standardized tasks. Indeed, thecontinual need to be reskilling in a flexible and competitive labor market canbe observed in micro-form at school in the continuous competitive testing andassessment and quantitative measurement of results. The means and ends are thesame however, bureaucratic classification, measurement, and control, the betterto bureaucratically classify, measure, and control (non) individuals. Under latecapitalism, the state—more and more through outsourced private agencies—tasksitself with maintaining and reproducing disciplined subjects, the institution of theschool is perhaps the most obvious early experience—outside the family—of thisprocess. SCHOOLING THE PROLETARIAT: MASS PRODUCTIONDEMANDS A BETTER SKILLED WORKFORCE That mass-production in the twentieth century should require mass-production of slightly better skilled workers, is illustrative of the trajectories of Fordism andTaylorism. Parallel to this development, there was also the belated recognitionby the state that a literate and practically competent workforce, whose generaleducation was improving, was also a latent and potential threat to the social orderin which they were obliged to exist as slaves, if they were to physically exist atall. The rule-bound discipline inculcated by the school served well the factory andplant in which “labor is external to the worker” in which the labor of the worker“doesnotaffirm . . . butdenies,[andtheworker,ratherliketheschool-agestudent]    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   C   h  r   i  s   t   i  a  n   G  a  r   l  a  n   d   ]  a   t   1   1  :   4   2   3   0   J  a  n  u  a  r  y   2   0   1   2
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