FOOD CONSUMPTION AND AVAILABLE NUTRIENTS IN THE SCHEDULED CASTE POPULATION OF KURNOOL DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH

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The increasing pressure of population on land as well as precarious nature of agriculture in the drought prone areas have been accentuating the problem of undernourishment and malnutrition. It is not uncommon that the incidence of nutritional
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    FOOD CONSUMPTION AND AVAILABLE NUTRIENTS IN THE SCHEDULED CASTE POPULATION OF KURNOOL DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH M. KARUNAKARA RAO 1 , A. KRISHNA KUMARI 2 , V. SREENIVASULU 3  & T. PENCHALAIAH 4   1,2,3 Department of Geography, S.K. University, Anantapuram, Andhra Pradesh, India 4 Sr. Lecturer, Government Degree College, Andhra Pradesh, India ABSTRACT The increasing pressure of population on land as well as precarious nature of agriculture in the drought prone areas have been accentuating the problem of undernourishment and malnutrition. It is not uncommon that the incidence of nutritional deficiency diseases is high in poor, vulnerable and downtrodden groups of population. The low standards of Nutrition leading to cause a variety of diseases like Goitre, Rickets, Anaemia, unsafe pregnancies, Beri-Beri, Pellagra, Scurvey, Fatigue, Colitis, Avitaminosis, Diarrhoea, Underweight, Conjunctivitis, Coronary heart diseases, defects in basic metabolism, slow pulse, lowered blood pressure, Suppression of menses in women, Dry, Coarse & cold skin, Insomnia, Osteoporosis Nutritional edema, Burning sensation in the feet and hands etc. It is now known that malnutrition may aggravate the clinical course of some infectious diseases. Thus, directly (or) indirectly both malnutrition and undernutrition accounts for a considerable part of the ill health among the population.In this context, an attempt is made here to study the consumption of food and available nutrients in   the scheduled caste population of kurnool district, Andhra pradesh. KEYWORDS:  Consumption, Nutrients, Deficiency, Balanced Diet, Standard Requirement   INTRODUCTION Study Area Kurnool District is located in Rayalaseema Region of Andhra Pradesh between the northern latitudes of 14 ◦  54' and 16 ◦  25' and eastern longitudes of 76 ◦   58' and 78 ◦  25'. The geographical area of the district is 17,658 square kilometers. Administratively, the district consisting of 54 revenue mandals. The altitude of the district generally varies from 300 to 600 meters above mean sea level. The district is drained by Krishna, Tungabhadra, Kunderu and Hundri rivers. The normal rainfall of the district is 630 millimeters. About 49.26 percent of the total geographical area is under net sown area. Kurnool district has a total population of 35.29 lakhs according to 2001 census with 75 percent in rural areas. There are 965 females per 1000 males in the district. Workers community constitute 42.52 percent of the total population. About 53.2 percent of population are literates.   It is noteworthy to mention the status of Scheduled Caste population as the study is related with Scheduled Caste population. Kurnool district is having about 17.81 percent of Scheduled Caste population to the total district population (2001 census). In actual numbers it constitute about 6,28,637. Among them 3,20,496 are males and 3,08,141 are females. Kurnool district has enormous deposits of limestone suitable for cement manufacture. Most of the industries are agro-based except cement and other mineral based industries like barites, white shale, yellow shale and steatite. Srisailam Hydel Power Project is another important industry in the district. Available Nutrients in Kurnool District To know the availability of nutrients in Kurnool District, data regarding to yield levels of food crops that are commonly consumed by the rural and poor people of the district such as Cereal crops (Paddy& Wheat), Major millets BEST: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences (BEST: IJHAMS) ISSN 2348-0521 Vol. 2, Issue 8, Aug 2014, 23-34 © BEST Journals    24 M. Karunakara Rao, A. Krishna Kumari, V. Sreenivasulu & T. Penchalaiah   (Jowar, Bajra, Maize and Ragi), Minor millets, Pulses (Red gram, Green gram, Black gram, Bengal gram, Cow gram), Spices and Condiments (Sugar cane, Chillies, Tamarind, Corrinder, Garlic, Turmeric, Zinger etc), Oil crops (Groundnut), Vegetables (Onions, Tomato, Potatoes, Sweet potatoes, Leaf Vegetables), Fruits (Banana) were taken for the analysis. Milk production and Flesh foods (Chicken, Mutton, Beef and Eggs) were also included in the study. Data and Methodology Adopted The per capita nutritional availability per day has been computed at district level by taking the triennial average of secondary data on the production of common food crops and their yield levels which are raised and consumed generally in the district as listed above. There are two methods of computation of nutritional availability in an area i.e., Food balance sheet method and Household food consumption survey. The present study is based on Food balance sheet method which was suggested by FAO (1957), Shafi (1960), Sukhatme (1962), Ramanaiah (2010) and the same was further adopted by many geographers. For the actual assessment of per capita nutritional availability per day, the following procedures have been taken into consideration for the preparation of actual food balance sheet for the Kurnool district. Recognizing the importance of field survey in geographical studies, a micro level study has been carried out in 10 villages to understand the socio-economic background of Scheduled Caste population and their nutritional consumption, health status and utilization of health care facilities. The selection of villages was based on stratified random sampling method considering the physical and locational aspects and also the endemicity of diseases. The sample villages are - Kurukunda (Atmakur mandal), Kadithota (Adoni mandal), Gorantla (Kodumur mandal), Kapatrala (Devanakonda mandal), Konapuram (Owk mandal), Pagidirai (Tuggali mandal), Regadagudur (Velgode mandal), Chapirevula (Nandyala mandal), R.S.Rangapuram (Bethamcherla mandal), E.Thandrapadu (Kurnool mandal) (Figure 5.1). The primary data is generated for 200 samples belong to Scheduled Caste population with a pretested and precoded schedule. From each of the 10 villages, 20 Scheduled Caste respondents were interviewed randomly at their households to get the required information. The socio - economic features of the total sample size of the district is as fallows . In terms of gender, the samples consist of 93 males and 107 females. Age wise, there is 1 sample with <20 years, 113 samples between 20-40 years, 60 samples between 40-60 years and 26 samples in the age group of >60 years. With regard to social status, there are 139 samples belong to Madiga community and the rest of 61 samples from Mala community. Regarding to education, the sample size consists of considerable number (128) of illiterates which accounts to about 64% of the total samples. The rest comes under educated group i.e., 36 samples under primary education, 7 samples with upper primary education, 16 samples with high school education, 12 sample with Intermediate education and only one with graduate degree. In terms of income, most of the sample size (79.5%) falls under lower income group (<Rs/- 25000), 20 percent in moderate income group (Rs/- 25000-50000) and only one person in higher income group of >Rs/- 50000. The primary source for most of the sample population is Agriculture (46%) followed by wage labourers (23%), wage labourers cum petty business (22.5%) and the rest of the sample population (8.5%) earning their means through other sources. Of the total sample, 65 samples are landless, not owning even a single piece of land, 126 samples are owning some agricultural land to cultivate, 8 persons earning their livelihood through tenancy and only one person is both owner and a tenant. Regarding to amount of land owned, most of the Agricultural land owners (108) are owning <1 acre, 80 samples are having 1-3 acres of land and only 12 samples have more than 3 acres of land. The type of house in which the sample population is inhabited also varies from village to village. Large number of sample population (168) is dwelling in government built houses under housing scheme and the remaining sample  Food Consumption and Available Nutrients in the Scheduled   25 Caste Population of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh   population lives in single storied building (12), Brick walls with Thatched roof (1), mudwalls with Thatched roof (10) and Huts (9). Figure 1 Consumption of Regular Foods and Available Nutrients in the Sample Population of Kurnool District The consumption patterns of common foods which are cultivated and consumed generally in the district and their nutrient values have been studied in the Scheduled Caste population of sample villages. Consuption of Cereals and Their Nutrients In the sample population of Kurnool district, the consumption of cereals and their nutrients vary differently from one sample village to another. On the whole 62 percent of samples are consuming more than 410 gms/day/person, and about 32.5% are taking 270-410 gms/day/person, 3% of the Scheduled Caste samples are consuming 130-270 gms/day/person and the least consumption (<130 gms/day/person) is only by 2.5 % of sample population. It is clear that in Kurnool district, considerable size of sample population (62%) are consuming required quantity (400 gms) of cereals per day. If we look into the villages, individually, except in Konapuram, Kadithota and Gorantla, in the other seven villages, more than 60% of the sample population consuming >410 gms of cereals per day/person (Table-1). The levels of nutrients present in different amounts of cereals consumed by the Scheduled Caste population in the sample villages is given in the table -1. Table 1: Consumption of Cereals in Sample Villages – Kurnool District (Per Day/Person) S No Name of the Village (<50 Kgs/Year) <130 Gms (50-100 Kgs/Year) 130-270 Gms (100- 150 Kgs/Year) 270-410 Gms (150-200 Kgs/Year) 410-540 Gms Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 1 Kurukunda - - - - 4 20 16 80 2 Kadithota - - 1 5 12 60 7 35 3 Gorantla 1 5 - - 12 60 7 35 4 Kapatrala - - - - 8 40 12 60 5 Konapuram 1 5 - - 15 75 4 20 6 Pagidirai 2 10 - - 3 15 15 75 7 Regadagudur - - 1 5 1 5 18 90 8 Chapirevula 1 5 1 5 2 10 16 60 9 R.S.Rangapuram - - 2 10 4 20 15 75 10 E. Thandrapadu - - 2 10 4 20 14 70 Total 5 2.5 6 3.0 65 32.5 124 62.0  26 M. Karunakara Rao, A. Krishna Kumari, V. Sreenivasulu & T. Penchalaiah   Table 2: Nutrients Present in Different Quantities of Cereals Consumed by the Sample Population-Kurnool District S.No    Q  u  a  n   t   i   t   i  e  s  o   f   M  a   j  o  r   M   i   l   l  e   t  s   (   G  m  s   )   T  o   t  a   l   E  n  e  r  g  y   (   C  a   l  o  r   i  e  s   )   P  r  o   t  e   i  n   (   G  m  s   )   F  a   t   (   G  m  s   )   M   i  n  e  r  a   l  s   (   G  m  s   )   F   i   b  r  e   (   G  m  s   )   C  a  r   b  o   H  y   d  r  a   t  e  s   (   G  m  s   )   C  a   l  c   i  u  m   (   M  g   )   I  r  o  n   (   M  g   )   V   i   t  -   A   (   I  u   )   T   h   i  a  m   i  n  e   (   M  g   )   R   i   b  o   f   l  a  v   i  n   (   M  g   )   N   i  c  o   t  a  n   i  c   A  c   i   d   (   M  g   0   V   i   t  -   C   (   M  g   ) 1 130 446 12.3 1.8 2.2 1.4 96 37.7 9.5 63.7 0.4 0.2 4.0 - 2 270 926 25.5 3.8 4.6 2.9 199.3 78.3 19.7 132.3 0.8 0.4 8.4 - 3 410 1406 38.7 5.7 6.9 4.3 302.6 118.9 29.9 200.9 1.2 0.7 12.7 - 4 540 1852 51.0 7.6 9.2 5.7 398.5 156.6 39.4 264.6 1.6 0.9 16.8 - Consumption of Major Millets and Their Nutrients The consumption of major millets is noticed as insignificant among the sample population of the district compared to Rice and Wheat. About 58% of the samples are consuming only 55-109 gms/day, 38% taking 109-164 gms/day, 3.5% of sample population consuming only less than 55 gms/day and only 0.5% of samples are consuming more than 164 gms of major millets/day (Table -3). The status of nutrients present in different amounts of major millets consumed by the sample population is furnished in Table - 4. Consumption of Minor Millets and Their Nutrients Nearly more than half of the Scheduled Caste population (59.5%) of sample villages are consuming very minute quantities of minor millets i.e., 27-55 gms/day (Table -5). About 35 percent are taking 55-82 gms/day in their food, and only the remaining 5.5 percent samples are consuming more than 82 gms of minor millets. Table- 6 gives the composition of nutrients present in different amounts of minor millets consumed by the samples of Scheduled Caste population. Consumption of Pulses and Grams and Their Nutrients Regarding to the consumption of Pulses and Grams, relatively more number of samples (38%) consuming less than 28 gms of pulses and grams per day which is said to be very low compared to the standard requirement of 85 gms per day. About 20.5 % of Scheduled Caste people are taking only 28-55 gms per day, 23 per cent are consuming 55-82 gms per day and the remaining 22.5% population are consuming more 82 gms per day in their regular diets (Table -7). The sample survey shows that more than 2/3 rds of Scheduled Caste population in the sample villages are not meeting the standard requirement of pulses and grams in their diet, which ultimately lead to protein deficiency diseases like stunting of growth, diarrhoea, discolouration and sparseness of hair, discolouration and peeling off of the skin, anaemia, swelling of the body and fatty liver. Children are more susceptible to protein deficiency. Table -8 furnishes the available nutrients in different amounts of pulses and grams consumed by the samples. Consumption of Spices and Condiments and Their Nutrients In the sample villages of Kurnool district, almost the entire sample size (94%) is below the standard requirement (57 gms) of spices and condiments with a consumption range of 27-55 gms/day (Table- 9). Only about 2 percent of sample size is taking more than 55 gms and the remaining 4 percent population is consuming less than 27 gms/day. The available nutrients in different amounts of spices and condiments consumed by the sample population is given in Table -10.  Food Consumption and Available Nutrients in the Scheduled   27 Caste Population of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh   Consumption of Oils and Their Nutrients If we look into the Oil consumption among sample population, unfortunately, the entire sample size is below the mark of standard requirement (57 gms) of oils in their diets (Table-11). About 79.5 Table 3: Consumption of Major Millets in Sample Villages – Kurnool District (Per Day/Person) S No Name of the Village (<20 Kgs/Year) <55 Gms (20-40 Kgs/Year) 55-109 Gms (40- 60 Kgs/Year) 109-164 Gms (>60 Kgs/Year) >164 Gms Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 1 Kurukunda 6 30 14 70 - - - - 2 Kadithota - - 7 35 - - - - 3 Gorantla - - 9 45 1 5 1 5 4 Kapatrala - - 2 10 - - - - 5 Konapuram - - 9 45 - - - - 6 Pagidirai - - 15 75 - - - - 7 Regadagudur 1 5 18 90 1 5 - - 8 Chapirevula - - 20 100 - - - - 9 R.S.Rangapuram - - 13 65 7 35 - - 10 E. Thandrapadu - - 9 45 11 55 - - Total 7 3.5 116 58 76 38 1 0.5 Table 4: Nutrients Present in Different Quantities of Major Millets Consumed by the Sample Population-Kurnool District Sno   u  a  n   t   t  e  s  o   M  a   j  o  r   M   i   l   l  e   t  s   G  m  s   T  o   t  a   l   E  n  e  r  g  y   (   C  a   l  o  r   i  e  s   )   P  r  o   t  e   i  n   (   G  m  s   )   F  a   t   (   G  m  s   )   M   i  n  e  r  a   l  s   (   G  m  s   )   F   i   b  r  e   (   G  m  s   )   C  a  r   b  o   h  y   d  r  a   t  e  s   (   G  m  s   )   C  a   l  c   i  u  m   (   M  g   )   I  r  o  n   (   M  g   )   V   i   t  -   A   (   I  u   )   T   h   i  a  m   i  n  e   (   M  g   )   R   i   b  o   f   l  a  v   i  n   (   M  g   )   N   i  c  o   t  a  n   i  c   A  c   i   d   (   M  g   0   V   i   t  -   C   (   M  g   ) 1 55 189 5.6 1.7 1 1.3 38.5 57.9 5.4 247.5 0.2 0.1 1 - 2 109 375 11 3.27 2 2.5 76 114.7 10.8 490.5 0.4 0.2 2 - 3 164 564 16.6 4.9 3 3.7 114.8 172.61 16 738 0.6 0.3 3.1 - Table 5: Consumption of Minor Millets in Sample Villages – Kurnool District (Per Day/Person) Sno Name of the Village (10-20 Kgs/Year) 27-55 Gms (20-30 Kgs/Year) 55-82 Gms (>30kgs/Year) >82 Gms Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 1 Kurukunda 20 100 - - - - 2 Kadithota 19 95 1 5 - - 3 Gorantla 20 100 - - - - 4 Kapatrala 20 100 - - - - 5 Konapuram 19 95 1 5 - - 6 Pagidirai 3 15 12 60 5 25 7 Regadagudur 11 55 8 40 1 5 8 Chapirevula 4 20 16 80 - - 9 R.S.Rangapuram 2 10 17 85 1 5 10 E. Thandrapadu 1 5 15 75 4 20 Total 119 59.5 70 35 11 5.5 Table 6: Nutrients Present in Different Quantities of Minor Millets Consumed by the Sample Population-Kurnool District Sno    Q  u  a  n   t   i   t   i  e  s  o   f   M  a   j  o  r   M   i   l   l  e   t  s   (   G  m  s   )   T  o   t  a   l   E  n  e  r  g  y   (   C  a   l  o  r   i  e  s   )   P  r  o   t  e   i  n   (   G  m  s   )   F  a   t   (   G  m  s   )   M   i  n  e  r  a   l  s   (   G  m  s   )   F   i   b  r  e   (   G  m  s   )   C  a  r   b  o   h  y   d  r  a   t  e  s   (   G  m  s   )   C  a   l  c   i  u  m   (   M  g   )   I  r  o  n   (   M  g   )   V   i   t  -   A   (   I  u   )   T   h   i  a  m   i  n  e   (   M  g   )   R   i   b  o   f   l  a  v   i  n   (   M  g   )   N   i  c  o   t  a  n   i  c   A  c   i   d   (   M  g   0   V   i   t  -   C   (   M  g   ) 1 27 89 3 1.2 0.9 2.2 16.4 8.4 3.5 14.6 0.2 0.2 0.2 - 2 55 182 6.8 2.4 1.8 4.4 33.5 17.1 7.1 29.7 0.3 0.4 0.4 - 3 82 271 10.1 3.5 2.7 6.6 49.9 25.4 10.6 44.3 0.5 0.7 0.6 -
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