El Maghara Scenarios: Alternative Images of The Future

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El Maghara Scenarios: Alternative Images of The Future
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  ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN WELL-BEING El Maghara, Northern Sinai, Egypt UNEP  Copyright ©2010, United Nations Environment Programme ISBN: 978-92-807-3056-2Disclaimers The content and views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reect the views or policies of the contributory experts, organizations, or the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and neither do they imply any endorsement. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNEP concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or city or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers and boundaries.Mention of a commercial company or product in this publication does not imply the endorsement of UNEP.© Maps, photos, and illustrations as specied. Reproduction This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-prot purposes without special permission fromthe copyright holder, provided acknowledgment of the source is made. UNEP would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this  publication as a source.  No use of this publication may be made for resale or any other commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from UNEP.Applications for such permission, with a statement of purpose and intent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Division of Communicationand Public Information (DCPI), UNEP, P.O. Box 30552, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.The use of information from this publication concerning proprietary products for publicity or advertising is not permitted. Produced by Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA) – United Nations Environment ProgrammeP.O. Box 30552, Nairobi 00100, KenyaTel: (+254) 20 762-1234Fax: (+254) 20 762-3927E-mail: uneppub@unep.orgWeb: www.unep.org Cover: Audrey Ringler, UNEP, Nairobi Concept and layout: ©Ocean Graphics, Cairo, Egypt Printing: Progress Press Ltd., Malta Distribution Services: SMI Ltd., UK This publication is available from Earthprint.com http://www.earthprint.com UNEP encouragesenvironmentally sound practiceson the global level as well as on thelevel of its own activities. This publicationhas been printed on chlorine free and acidfree paper made from 100 per cent recycledpulp. Our distribution policy aims to reduceUNEP’s carbon footprint.  iii Acknowledgments UNEP acknowledges the contributions made by many individuals and institutions that have contributed to “Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Al Maghara, Northern Sinai, Egypt”. A special word of thanksgoes to H.E. Eng. Maged George Elias Ghattas, Minister of State for Environment Affairs in Egyptfor his support. Also, our special thanks go to the encouragements and supports provided by Professor Mohamed El Zhogby, president of the Suez Canal University, Professor Farouk Abdelkader, presidentof Sinai University as well as Professor Ibrahim Nagi Aly, vice president of the Suez Canal University.A special word of thanks goes to Ms. Hanna Ayoub, Ms. Judy Barsalou, Ms. Marina Dawoud, Ms.Sharry Lapp, Ms. Amany Manqabadi and Ms. Emma Playfair from the Ford Foundation, Cairoofce. Our thanks are also extended for the coordination and support provided by the directors of theMillennium Ecosystem Assessment Dr.Walter V. Reid (January 2002 - March 2005) and Mr. MarcusLee (April - September 2005). The full list of names to acknowledge is given below: Authors Lead Coordinating Author Mohamed Tawc Ahmed Introduction Author: Mohamed Tawc Ahmed Chapter 1 Lead Author: Mohamed Tawc Ahmed Contributing Authors: Ahmed Abdelrehim, Ali Amasha, Mohamed O.Arnous, Khairy El Ashry, Hamdy El Sharabasy, Mohamed El Tabie, Mayar Sabet Chapter 2 Lead Authors: Mohamed Tawc Ahmed, Mohamed O.Arnous, Mohamed A. El Ghawaby, KamalOuda Ghodief  Contributing Authors: Raafat Abdelwahab, Mohamed El Shae, Hamdy El Sharabasy, MohamedA.A.Hassan, Naglaa Loutfy, Mahmoud Zahran Chapter 3 Lead Author: Mohamed Tawc Ahmed, Luohui Liang Contributing Authors: Manal Hassan, Manal Hefny, Naglaa Loutfy, Kariman Mahomoud, Mayar Sabet Chapter 4 Leading Authors: Mohamed Tawc Ahmed, Mohamed Mostafa Saleh Contributing Author: Adel Abdelkader, Ahmed Abdelrehim Chapter 5 Lead Author: Ahmed El Kholy Contributing Authors: Adel Abdelkader, Ahmed Abdelrehim, Mohamed Tawc Ahmed  ivFunding: The Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Ford Foundation, Cairo Ofce, the MillenniumEcosystem Assessment and UNEP, World Fish Center, Penang, Malaysia together funded this assessment. UNEP Coordination: Adel Abdelkader  Extended Team: UNEP : Yasmina Adra, Marion Cheatle, Salif Diop, Habib El-Habr, Ahmed Ghosn, Peter Gilruth,Marcus Lee (2006-2008), Hiba Sadaka, Gemma Shepherd Suez Canal University: Yassir Awad, Gamal El Kady, Samir El Shazli, Amira Gamal, Salah Goaied,Gamal Gomaa, Sara Griesh, Samia Henneidk, Samar Kishta, Nehal Loutfy, Samia Massoud, Moustafa Saleh, Eid Quraish, Rabie Saleh, Adel Salem, Tamer Shawki Desert Research Centre: Yassir Hanafy, Badran Hassanain Jawaharlal Nehru University: JK Saxena, New Delhi, India Editors: Cathy Costain, Mona Hashish, Rosemarie Philips Technical Editors: Adel Abdelkader, Mohamed Tawc Ahmed Concept and Layout : ©Ocean Graphics, Cairo, Egypt Art Director : Sheridan Mohamed HashishDesign: Mona Mahmoud Fouad Cover Design: Audrey Ringler  Capacity Building Component Team: Asma Abahussain, Mohammad Abido, Anwar Shaikh Al-DinA. Khalil, Waleed Zubari Institutions Centre for Environment and Development for Arab Region and Europe, CEDAREDesert Research Centre, Egypt Egypt Metrological Service Governorate of North SinaiJawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, IndiaMinistry of Electricity, North SinaiMinistry of Water Resources and Irrigation, North Sinai Petroleum Research Centre, Cairo Soul Water, CairoUnited Nations University, Tokyo, JapanWorld Fish Centre, ICLARM, Penang, Malaysia Reviewers: Reda Bayoumi, Hernán Blanco, Colin Filer, Manal El Batran, Mohamed El Ghawaby, Mohamed ElKassas, Wafa Essahli, Edgar Göll, Marcus Lee, Luohui Liang, Belinda Reyers, Adel Zakri  v Contents Forewordx Preface xiIntroduction1 Chapter 1: Assessment Methods 9 Chapter 2: El Maghara Ecosystem, Trends, Conditionsand Impacts 31 Chapter 3: Local Knowledge: A Valuable Resource73 Chapter 4: El Maghara Scenarios: Alternative Images of the F uture 87 Chapter 5: Policy Responses: Moving TowardSustainability 127Glossary156 Index 160
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