Effect of textile effluents on growth performance of wheat cultivars

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Effect of textile effluents on growth performance of wheat cultivars
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  Effect of textile effluents on growth performance of wheat cultivars Priya Kaushik, V.K. Garg  * , Bhupinder Singh Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar 125001, India Received 25 May 2004; received in revised form 10 September 2004; accepted 18 September 2004Available online 21 November 2004 Abstract Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of different concentrations in the range of 0–100% textile effluents(untreated and treated) on seed germination (%), delay index (DI), plant shoot length and root length, plant biomass, chlorophyllcontent and carotenoid of three different cultivars of wheat. The textile effluent did not show any inhibitory effect on seed germi-nation at low concentration (6.25%). The other reported plant parameters also followed the similar trend. Seeds germinated in undi-luted effluents did not survive for longer period. Based on the tolerance to textile effluent, the wheat cultivars have been arranged inthe following order: PBW-343 < PBW-373 < WH-147. It has also been concluded that effect of the textile effluent is cultivar specificand due care should be taken before using the textile effluent for irrigation purpose.   2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords:  Textile effluent; Wheat cultivars; Germination (%); Delay index; Shoot and root length; Plant biomass; Pigments 1. Introduction Textile industries have been placed in the category of most polluting industries by the Ministry of Environ-ment and Forests, Government of India. India has alarge network of textile industries of varying capacitythat are distributed through out the country. Their efflu-ents constitute a major part of the total industrial efflu-ents in India. The improper and indiscriminate disposalof textile effluents in natural waters and land is posingserious problems. The textile effluents contain organicand inorganic chemical species which have adverseeffects on different crops. The germination of kidneybean ( Phaseolus aureus ) and lady  s finger ( Abelmoschusesculentus ) seeds were affected adversely when 75%and 100% concentrations of the textile effluent wereused as compared to control (water). While there wasno effect up to 50% concentration (Mohammad andKhan, 1985). Where as, Bengal gram ( Cicer arietinum )seeds   germination was adversely affected in even aslow as 5% textile effluent concentration (Dayama,1987). But unlike above said crops, 50% diluted textileeffluent increased the seed germination, total sugars,starch, reducing sugars, and chlorophyll than control(distilled water) of groundnut seedlings (Swaminathanand Vaidheeswarn, 1991). These studies showed that ef-fects of an industrial effluent vary from crop to crop. Soit is essential to study the effect of industrial effluents onindividual crops before their disposal in agriculturalfields.In Haryana state, wheat crop is sown in more than70% area, but different cultivars are used in differentregions depending upon the local climate and irrigationfacilities. In the present study an attempt has beenmade to assess the effects of untreated and treated tex-tile effluents on the seed germination and growth per-formance of different cultivars of wheat at different 0960-8524/$ - see front matter    2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2004.09.020 * Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 1662 275375; fax: +91 1662276240. E-mail address:  vinodkgarg@yahoo.com (V.K. Garg).Bioresource Technology 96 (2005) 1189–1193  effluent concentrations in laboratory and pot cultureexperiments. 2. Methods  2.1. Textile effluents The textile effluent (untreated and treated) used in thepresent study was collected in pre-cleaned containersfrom H.P. cotton Mill Ltd. located near Hisar (Har-yana), India. Its various physico-chemical characteris-tics were analyzed using standard methods (APHA,1989). The effluents were stored at 4  C during storageperiod to avoid changes in its characteristics.  2.2. Wheat cultivars The effect of textile effluent has been studied on threedifferent cultivars of wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) viz, WH-147, PBW-343 and PBW-373. The seeds were procuredfrom the certified local seed supplier. Before performingthe experiments, the percent germination of these culti-vars was checked and was found to be between 90%and 100%.  2.3. Germination experiments For germination tests, 10 seeds of each wheat cultivarwere placed in sterilized glass Petri dishes of uniformsize lined with two filter paper discs. These filter discswere then moistened with 5ml of distilled water for con-trol and with the same quantity of various concentra-tions of the textile effluent (6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%,50.0%, 75.0% and 100%) in distilled water. The Petridishes were incubated at 27 ± 1  C in an incubator. Ger-mination was recorded daily at a fixed hour, and theemergence of the radicle was taken as a criterion of ger-mination. All the experiments were carried out in tripli-cate and the results were averaged.Germination time, defined as the time taken for 60%germination was worked out for studied wheat cultivarsunder different effluent concentrations.Delay index (DI), a normalized parameter, was calcu-lated to compare the performance of different wheat cul-tivars under different effluent concentrations as givenbelow.Delay index (DI) =  X  / Y  , where,  X   = delay in germi-nation time over control (no effluent) and,  Y   = germina-tion time for control.Forobservingseedlinggrowth,five7daysoldseedlingswere picked from each of the sets, and the length of theroot and shoot were recorded. Plants at the terminationof experiment were collected, and their roots and stemsalong with leaves were separated and dried at 65  C in ahot-air oven for 24h. Their dry weights were recorded.  2.4. Pot culture experiments Pots of 15cm (diameter)  ·  14cm (height) size werefilled with equal amounts of sandy loam soil of mediumfertility and 10 seeds of WH-147 wheat cultivar weresown in each pot. The pots were irrigated with selectedconcentrations (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and100%) of the textile effluents. For each treatment,100ml of each of these was applied to the respectivepot at five day interval, throughout the study period.Each treatment had three replications. A control set,irrigated with distilled water was also maintained forcomparison. After germination seeds were thinned tosix seedlings per pot in all the pots except for thosewhere number of germinated seeds was six or less thansix. The chlorophyll and carotenoid content of theplants were measured. The chlorophyll content was esti-mated by extracting fresh leaves with 80% acetone andafter centrifugation at 8000rpm for 20min, measuringthe colour intensity of the extract at 445, 645 and663nm. The formulae of  Arnon (1949) were used to cal-culate the  chlorophyll a  and  chlorophyll b  contents andthat of  Ikan (1969) for the carotenoid content. 3. Results and discussion The physico-chemical characteristics of untreatedand treated forms of the effluent are shown in Table 1.Untreated effluent was brownish black in colour, deficitin dissolved oxygen, rich in total solids, total alkalinity,BOD and COD with considerable amounts of totalnitrogen, phosphate, chlorides, sulphates, sodium andcalcium. The potassium content was negligible. Table 1Physico-chemical characteristics of textile effluentsParameter UntreatedeffluentTreatedeffluentColour Brownish black Muddy greypH 9.9 8.2EC (mmhocm  1 ) 8.13 7.34Specific gravity 1.01 0.99Suspended solids (mgl  1 ) 210 128Total solids (mgl  1 ) 7333 6786Total alkalinity (as CaCO 3 , mgl  1 ) 946 792Dissolved oxygen (mgl  1 ) Nil NilBOD (mgl  1 ) 1626 496COD (mgl  1 ) 2190 960Total nitrogen (as N) (mgl  1 ) 246 238Sodium (mgl  1 ) 186 142Potassium (mgl  1 ) 9 7Calcium (mgl  1 ) 318 267Chloride (mgl  1 ) 860 692Sulphate (mgl  1 ) 381 326Fluoride (mgl  1 ) Nil NilPhosphate-P (mgl  1 ) 18 141190  P. Kaushik et al. / Bioresource Technology 96 (2005) 1189–1193  Treated effluent was muddy grey in colour. The mag-nitude of analyzed parameters was lower for treatedeffluent than untreated effluent (Table 1). The data fur-ther showed that suspended solids and BOD content of the studied effluents exceeded the prescribed Indian dis-posal standards (100mgl  1 and 150mgl  1 respectively).In general, the germination count decreased with in-crease in untreated effluents concentration. In contrast,treated effluent treatment has no effect on germinationup to 25% effluent concentration on PBW-343 andPBW-373 wheat cultivars. Table 2 show that the germi-nation (%) of wheat cultivars in untreated effluent was Table 2Effect of textile effluents on germination (%) of different wheat cultivars (after 120h) ( n  = 3, mean ± SD)Effluent conc. (%) Untreated effluent Treated effluentWH-147 PBW-343 PBW-373 WH-147 PBW-343 PBW-3730 (DW) a 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.006.25 90 ± 0.00 90 ± 0.00 90 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.0012.5 87 ± 5.78 90 ± 0.00 85 ± 5.00 90 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.0025.0 80 ± 10.00 90 ± 0.00 72 ± 4.08 90 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.0050.0 76 ± 5.78 80 ± 0.00 60 ± 6.87 90 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00 86 ± 5.4775.0 70 ± 8.94 63 ± 5.77 56 ± 7.56 80 ± 0.00 86 ± 5.47 80 ± 8.94100 60 ± 0.00 59 ± 4.08 51 ± 3.78 76 ± 5.16 80 ± 8.94 70 ± 0.00 a DW = Distilled water.Table 3Effect of textile effluent concentrations on delay index (DI) of different wheat cultivarsTreatment (%) WH-147 PBW-343 PBW-373UTF a TF b UTF TF UTF TF6.25 0 0 0 0 0 012.5 0.25 0.25 0.5 0 0 025.0 0.25 0.25 0.5 0 0 050.0 0.50 0.25 0.50 0.25 0.17 075.0 1.0 0.25 1.0 0.25 1.0 0.17100 1.5 0.5 1.0 0.25 1.33 0.33 a UTF = untreated effluent. b TF = treated effluent.Table 4Effect of textile effluent on shoot and root length (after seven days) (in cm) ( n  = 3, mean ± SD)Effluent conc. (%) WH-147 PBW-343 PBW-373SL a RL b SL a RL b SL a RL b Untreated effluent 0 c 9.1 ± 1.571 10.1 ± 0.265 9.6 ± 0.665 11.5 ± 1.015 7.9 ± 0.700 7.1 ± 0.5296.25 9.7 ± 0.954 11.0 ± 0.656 10.9 ± 1.411 12.4 ± 1.609 10.9 ± 1.153 9.1 ± 0.65612.5 8.9 ± 0.985 10.8 ± 1.417 10.2 ± 0.557 12.0 ± 0.625 9.8 ± 0.400 9.0 ± 0.36125.0 8.5 ± 0.265 9.7 ± 0.265 9.6 ± 0.436 11.0 ± 0.700 9.7 ± 0.600 9.8 ± 0.78150.0 8.2 ± 0.346 9.2 ± 0.608 9.2 ± 0.700 7.4 ± 0.755 6.6 ± 0.608 3.7 ± 0.52975.0 5.4 ± 0.624 3.7 ± 0.458 6.0 ± 0.361 4.6 ± 0.265 2.3 ± 0.346 1.1 ± 0.200100 2.5 ± 0.400 1.2 ± 0.360 4.9 ± 0.721 2.2 ± 0.264 2.2 ± 0.345 1.3 ± 0.436 Treated effluent 0 9.1 ± 1.571 10.1 ± 0.265 9.6 ± 0.665 11.5 ± 1.015 7.9 ± 0.700 7.1 ± 0.5296.25 9.6 ± 0.656 11.5 ± 0.557 9.9 ± 0.400 12.6 ± 0.458 11.1 ± 1.473 10.4 ± 1.17912.5 10.3 ± 0.200 16.7 ± 1.609 10.3 ± 0.872 12.9 ± 0.819 10.4 ± 1.054 8.9 ± 0.55725.0 9.2 ± 0.361 11.8 ± 0.608 10.2 ± 0.361 12.3 ± 0.529 9.1 ± 0.888 8.3 ± 0.34650.0 8.6 ± 0.794 11.8 ± 0.265 8.9 ± 0.529 7.3 ± 1.015 8.6 ± 0.889 6.9 ± 0.45875.0 6.6 ± 0.436 6.0 ± 0.300 8.8 ± 0.781 6.8 ± 0.264 8.0 ± 0.608 6.1 ± 0.361100 5.1 ± 0.624 4.9 ± 0.458 7.9 ± 0.600 5.3 ± 0.529 7.6 ± 0.636 3.4 ± 0.300 a SL = shoot length. b RL = root length. c Distilled water. P. Kaushik et al. / Bioresource Technology 96 (2005) 1189–1193  1191  lower than in treated effluent and difference persisted upto 120h. Among all the cultivars studied, WH-373 hadlowest germination (%) in both the effluents at 100%concentration. In untreated effluent (100%), some seedsgerminated, but the seedlings did not survive beyondfive days. Our results are consistent with the findingsof other workers (Neelam and Sahai, 1988; Mohammad and Khan, 1985; Sahai et al., 1983). The germinating ability of different crops at high osmotic pressure differswith variety and species (Ungar, 1987). The osmoticpressure of the effluent is higher at high concentrations(Ramana et al., 2002; Rodger et al., 1957) which retard germination.Increasing effluent concentration had a significant ef-fect on the delay index of all the wheat cultivars (Table3). The order of delay index in undiluted treatments(100%) for different wheat cultivars is WH-147 <PBW-373 < PBW-343 and similar behaviour has beenobserved for treated effluent treatments. The greatest ef-fect on root and shoot length was observed with undi-luted effluent followed by 75% and 50% dilution(Table 4). There was an increase in root and shootlength at 6.25%, 12.5% and 25% dilutions of untreatedeffluent in comparison to control on all the wheat culti-vars. But the increase was maximum at 6.25% dilution.For treated effluent treatments, increase in root andshoot lengths of WH-147 and PBW-343 cultivars wasat 6.25% and 12.5% dilution. Whereas for PBW-373 cul-tivar maximum root length and shoot length was only at6.25% dilution. The deleterious effects were more at 75% Table 5Effect of textile effluent on dry weight (after seven days) of different wheat cultivars (mg/plant) ( n  = 3, mean ± SD)Effluent conc. (%) WH-147 PBW-343 PBW-373Shoot Root Shoot Root Shoot Root Untreated effluent 0 (DW) a 10.5 ± 0.917 12.4 ± 0.872 9.2 ± 0.941 11.3 ± 1.271 10.4 ± 0.973 8.4 ± 0.4876.25 10.7 ± 0.794 12.6 ± 1.277 9.8 ± 0.784 11.6 ± 1.047 14.8 ± 0.947 8.6 ± 0.55412.5 7.6 ± 0.436 12.5 ± 0.721 9.1 ± 0.924 11.4 ± 1.235 11.2 ± 0.959 8.4 ± 0.56125.0 6.7 ± 0.361 12.3 ± 0.954 8.7 ± 0.453 10.9 ± 0.873 11.1 ± 0.475 8.2 ± 0.45950.0 6.3 ± 0.436 12.8 ± 0.529 8.4 ± 0.634 8.7 ± 0.942 6.8 ± 0.724 3.4 ± 0.53475.0 4.2 ± 0.435 9.4 ± 0.755 7.1 ± 0.529 4.3 ± 0.462 5.8 ± 0.623 2.7 ± 0.273100 3.1 ± 0.435 6.4 ± 0.361 5.7 ± 0.473 2.7 ± 0.347 2.6 ± 0.319 1.6 ± 0.132 Treated effluent 0 10.5 ± 0.917 12.4 ± 0.872 9.2 ± 0.941 11.3 ± 1.271 10.4 ± 0.973 8.4 ± 0.4876.25 10.7 ± 0.936 12.7 ± 0.983 10.1 ± 0.924 12.1 ± 0.952 14.9 ± 1.590 8.9 ± 1.06912.5 11.1 ± 0.879 13.6 ± 1.336 11.8 ± 0.873 12.3 ± 1.295 13.9 ± 1.504 8.7 ± 0.62525.0 10.6 ± 0.954 12.5 ± 1.179 11.7 ± 1.542 12.1 ± 1.067 12.7 ± 0.652 7.4 ± 1.05550.0 10.1 ± 0.728 11.8 ± 1.494 9.1 ± 0.875 9.2 ± 1.075 11.9 ± 1.347 6.8 ± 0.60075.0 9.5 ± 0.734 9.9 ± 0.592 9.0 ± 0.979 8.7 ± 0.659 11.5 ± 0.918 6.6 ± 0.628100 8.2 ± 0.527 8.8 ± 0.731 8.6 ± 0.363 7.8 ± 0.547 11.1 ± 0.860 6.4 ± 0.252 a DW = distilled water.Table 6Effect of textile effluent on plant pigments of WH-147 (after 30 days) (mgg  1 fresh weight)Effluent conc. (%)  Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b  Total chlorophyll Carotenoid Untreated effluent 0 (DW) a 0.749 ± 0.062 0.288 ± 0.015 1.050 ± 0.073 1.80 ± 0.0926.25 0.788 ± 0.075 0.294 ± 0.012 1.070 ± 0.085 1.86 ± 0.13112.5 0.683 ± 0.049 0.226 ± 0.014 0.865 ± 0.059 1.65 ± 0.15725.0 0.639 ± 0.052 0.205 ± 0.014 0.838 ± 0.063 1.62 ± 0.16350.0 0.586 ± 0.047 0.178 ± 0.012 0.720 ± 0.064 1.50 ± 0.08475.0 0.510 ± 0.038 0.200 ± 0.015 0.720 ± 0.052 1.50 ± 0.067100 0.440 ± 0.026 0.170 ± 0.015 0.617 ± 0.034 1.48 ± 0.045 Treated effluent 0 0.749 ± 0.062 0.288 ± 0.015 1.050 ± 0.073 1.80 ± 0.0926.25 0.788 ± 0.083 0.300 ± 0.015 1.080 ± 0.095 1.86 ± 0.03112.5 0.670 ± 0.062 0.250 ± 0.022 0.865 ± 0.044 1.73 ± 0.04325.0 0.620 ± 0.041 0.240 ± 0.016 0.862 ± 0.054 1.70 ± 0.09450.0 0.580 ± 0.052 0.220 ± 0.012 0.790 ± 0.036 1.69 ± 0.02675.0 0.504 ± 0.043 0.155 ± 0.011 0.748 ± 0.051 1.55 ± 0.036100 0.466 ± 0.025 0.147 ± 0.018 0.673 ± 0.083 1.50 ± 0.095 a DW = distilled water.1192  P. Kaushik et al. / Bioresource Technology 96 (2005) 1189–1193  and 100% dilutions. The results indicated that the trea-ted effluent had more fertilizing effect up to 25% dilutionand less prohibitive effect at 75% and 100% than un-treated effluent.The dry weights of roots and shoots also exhibitedprogressive increase from the control up to 6.25% con-centration and a gradual decrease in higher effluent con-centrations in untreated effluent after seven days (Table5). For treated effluent, the increase in shoot and rootdry weights have been recorded up to 25% dilution forWH-147 and PBW-343 wheat cultivars. The decreasein root and shoot biomass was less for treated effluentthan untreated effluent. Decreases in the growth andbiomass of   Cicer arietinum  by distillery effluent havebeen reported by Srivastava and Sahai (1987).The  chlorophyll a  and  chlorophyll b  contents wereincreased at 6.25% concentration and decreased at high-er concentrations by both the effluents. Similar observa-tion has been reported by Sahai et al. (1983) in Phaselous radiatous  treated with distillery effluent. Theinhibitory effect of untreated effluent was more on thepigments than treated effluent.  Chlorophyll b  contentwas more severely affected at higher concentrations ascompared to  chlorophyll a . The carotenoid content alsoincreased up to 6.5% effluent concentration and de-creased at higher concentrations (Table 6). 4. Conclusion It is evident from Table 1 that physico-chemical char-acteristics of the effluents exceeded the prescribed Indianstandards. It is therefore obvious that some kind of treatment is necessary to minimize the pollution effectsbefore the textile industry effluent is discharged on theland. But disposal of these effluents after proper dilutionmay be a favourable approach. After dilution, the efflu-ent characteristics come with in the prescribed disposallimits and pollution load per unit effluent volume isdecreased. The better growth of all the cultivars at6.25% effluent concentration may be due to the growthpromoting effect of nitrogen and other mineral elementspresent in the effluent (Sahai et al., 1979, 1983). Differen-tial responses of wheat cultivars to effluent treatmentwere noted. PBW-373 was most sensitive followed byWH-147 and PBW-343. The delay index showed varia-tion for wheat cultivars as well as for effluent concentra-tion. The use of effluent for irrigation may serve as anadditional source of water with fertilizing propertiesafter appropriate dilution. References American Public Health Association (APHA). 1989. Standard Meth-ods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 17th ed.Washington, DC.Arnon, D.I., 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphe-noloxidase in  Beta vulgaris . Plant Physiology 24 (1), 1–15.Dayama, O.P., 1987. Influence of dyeing and textile water pollution onnodulation and germination of gram ( Cicer arietinum ). ActaEcologia 9 (2), 34–37.Ikan, R., 1969. Natural Products: A laboratory Guide. AcademicPress, New York, p. 101.Mohammad, A., Khan, A.U., 1985. Effect of a textile factory effluenton soil and crop plants. Environmental Pollution (Series A) 37,131–148.Neelam, Sahai, R., 1988. Effect of fertilizer factory effluent on seedgermination, seedling growth, pigment content and biomass of  Sesamum indicum  Linn. Journal of Environmental Biology 9, 45– 50.Ramana, S., Biswas, A.K., Kundu, S., Saha, J.K., Yadava, R.B.R.,2002. Effect of distillery effluent on seed germination in somevegetable crops. Bioresource Technology 82, 273–275.Rodger, J.B.B., Williams, G.G., Davis, R.L., 1957. A rapid method fordetermining winter hardness of alfalfa. Agronomy Journal 49, 88– 92.Sahai, R., Agrawal, N., Khosla, N., 1979. Effect of fertilizer factoryeffluent on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllcontent of   Phaseolus radiatus  Linn. Tropical Ecology 22, 156–162.Sahai, R., Shukla, N., Jabeen, S., Saxena, P.K., 1983. Pollution effectof distillery waste on the growth behaviour of   Phaseolus radiatus  L.Environmental Pollution (Series A) 37, 245–253.Srivastava, N., Sahai, R., 1987. Effects of distillery wastewater on theperformance of   Cicer arietinum L . Environmental Pollution 43, 91– 102.Swaminathan, K., Vaidheeswarn, P., 1991. Effect of dying factoryeffluents on seed germination and seedling development of groundnut ( Arachis hypoges ). Journal of Environmental Health19 (3), 165–175.Ungar, I.A., 1987. Halophyte seed germination. Botanical Review 44,233–264. P. Kaushik et al. / Bioresource Technology 96 (2005) 1189–1193  1193
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