Effect of Spraying Different N Sources on Growth Performance of Picual Olive Seedlings

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This study was conducted on Picual olive seedlings grown at the greenhouse of National Research Center, Dokki, Giza governorate, Egypt. This investigation was performed to study the effect of applying crystalon (20: 20: 20 NPK) at four rates (0, 25,
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  American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 11 (6): 911-916, 2011ISSN 1818-6769© IDOSI Publications, 2011 Corresponding Author:  N.S. Mustafa, Pomology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt .911 Effect of Spraying Different N Sources on Growth Performance of Picual Olive Seedlings  N.S. Mustafa,Laila F. Hagag, M.F.M. Shahin and Eman S. El-Hady Pomology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt Abstract:  This study was conducted on Picual olive seedlings grown at the greenhouse of National ResearchCenter, Dokki, Giza governorate, Egypt. This investigation was performed to study the effect of applyingcrystalon (20: 20: 20 NPK) at four rates (0, 25, 37.5 and 50% g N/year/plant) as soil application twice monthly(from March till October) parallel with monthly N sprays during the growing season at of different N sourcesi.e. urea, ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate and crystalon at 0.5% for each. At the end of the season, percentageof plant height increment, leaves number per plant, shoots number per plant, stem diameter, leaves dry weight(%), roots number, root length were determined and recorded. The obtained results showed that combinationof soil application with crystalon at 50g N/year and foliar application with urea at 0.5% led to markedlyincrement of plant height, leaves number and roots number more than other treatments. Meanwhile, shootsnumber was clearly higher with soil application of crystalon at 50 g N/year + foliar application with crystalonat 0.5%. Also, crystalon application as soil application at 37.5 g N/year + foliar application with crysalon at 0.5%improved root growth and recorded higher increasing in root length in comparison with the other applications.Finally, stem diameter and leaf dry weight had high values with soil application at 50 g N/year + foliar application with calcium nitrate at 0.5%. Generally, these results indicated that applying crystalon at 37.5g/year combined with urea spray at 0.5% was the most effective on growth performance. In addition, the foliar application could reinforce fertilization programs and enhancement it's efficiency. Key words:  Picual olive %  Growth performance %  Nitrogen sources %  NPK %  Crystalon %  Foliar application INTRODUCTION fruit. Olive trees tend to produce better fruit under Olive ( Olea europaea ) is a long-lived tree that rangesbeing deficient. The supply of nutrients via the roots isin height from 8-15 m, depending on environmentalrestricted under drought and salinized soils because of conditions [1]. While, it is capable of persisting in mostthe negative effect of drought and salinity on nutrientenvironments, olive is most prolific in semi-arid to sub-availability. The efficacy of foliar fertilization is higher humid warm temperate regions, in sandy loam soil ofthan that of soil one in these situations, because of themoderate depth [2]. Olive is considered one of thedirect supply of the required nutrient to the location of important fruit crops in Egypt, the Egyptian olivedemand in the leaves and its relatively quick absorption production reached about 507053 tons produced from(e.g. 0.5-2h for N and 10-24h for K) and the independence110764 feddan(one feddan = 4200m) and the total areaof root activity and soil water availability [4]. At early 2 reached about 135692 feddan [3]. Around 30% of totalgrowth stages, foliar fertilization could increase N, P andolive area is grown in newly reclaimed lands. Olive treesK supplies at the time when the root system is not wellare semi-wild, hardy, tough plants that will tolerate poordeveloped [5]. The foliar application is an attractivegrowing conditions, especially low fertility, better thansolution especially in arid zone under rainfall deficientalmost any other fruit trees. The good soils and deepconditions where the lack of water in summer reducesfertile soils that would be important for above-standarddrastically nutrient absorption by the tree [6]. In thisgrowth and production for other orchard crops arerespect, foliar application is helpful to satisfy plantactually a negative for olives. In fertile soils, olives tendrequirement and has a high efficiency [7]. Moreover, foliar to be excessively vigorous vegetatively and produce littlefertilization reduces nutrient accumulation in soil, run-off conditions of low vigor including minimal nutrient without   Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 11 (6): 911-916, 2011 912and groundwater, where they contribute to salinity andTreatments were arranged in randomizednitrate contamination, with negative consequences tohumans and the environment. Soil-applied with fertilizersshould be replaced in part with foliar-applied fertilizers.Foliar fertilizers can meet the crop's nutrient demand whensoil temperature, moisture, pH, salinity renders or soil-applied fertilizers are ineffective. Applying nutrientsdirectly to leaves ensures that the plant’s photosyntheticmachinery is not compromised by low availability of anessential nutrient [8]. Nitrogen is the most importantmineral element in fertilization programs because plantsusually need N in greater amounts than other mineralnutrients [9]. In this concerning, urea is the major nitrogen(N) form supplied as fertilizer in agriculture, but it isalso an important N metabolite in plants [10]. Most olivenursery plants are produced in containers [11].Fertilization is particularly critical in containerized nursery plants because roots are confined in a limited amount of soil with rapid vegetative growth. Under these conditions,foliar fertilizers may play an important role in fertilization programs of containerized olive nursery plants.The present investigation was conducted to identifythe optimum level and method of application of nitrogento enhance growth performance of Picual seedlings andmaximizing nitrogen usage efficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out on healthy and almostuniform Picual olive seedlings cultivated in black  polyethylene bags with 30 cm diameter fooled 10 kgwashed sand mixed very good with 2.5 kg cattle manure inthe experimental research green house of NationalResearch Center at Dokki, Giza governorate, Egypt. Theinvestigation aimed to study the effect of applying NPK (crystalon 20: 20: 20 NPK) as soil application at four rates(0, 25, 37.5 and 50 g/year) and foliar applications of four different N sources (urea, ammonium nitrate, calciumnitrate and crystalon) at 0.5% for each one. The followingtreatments were investigated: C  NPK (crystalon 20: 20: 20 NPK) applied as soilapplication, 16 doses from March to October at four rates i.e. 0, 25, 37.5 and 50 g as actual N fromcrystalon. C Foliar applications of four N sources applied at(0.5%) once time per month from March till October,at forms of (urea, ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrateand crystalon). complete block design with four replicates for each treatment and each replicate was represented bythree seedlings. At the end of October, plants of eachtreatment were removed genteelly with their root systemto estimate and record the following data: C Percentage of seedling height increment. C Leaves number per plant. C Lateral shoots number per plant C Stem diameter (mm). C Leaf dry weight (%). C Root number. C Root length (cm). Statistical Analysis:  The data were subjected to analysisof variance and the method of Duncan’s was used todifferentiate means [12]. RESULTSPercentage of Increment Seedling Height:  Data presented in Table 1 revealed that soil application withcrystalon at 37.5g/year produced significantly 251.1%increment in percentage of seedling height comparingwith the other soil applications (control, 25g and 50g). Atthe same time, foliar application with urea at 0.5%markedly increased plants height (270.9%) in comparisonwith the other spraying treatments including the control.Meanwhile, interaction between spraying urea at 0.5 andsoil application at 50g N/year obviously enhanced plantheight 295%. Leaves Number per Plant:  It was found fromTable 2, that there was no significant differencefor effect of soil applications on leaves number.However, spraying urea at 0.5% markedlyincreased leaves number (143.8) in comparisonwith the other spraying forms. Also, Data in Table 2indicated that combing between soil application at(37.5 or 50g) and urea sprays at 0.5% resulted in markedlyincrement in leaves number (153) than the other treatments. Lateral Shoots Number per Plant:  Response of lateralshoots number to different doses of soil applications or foliar applications didn’t significantly differ among thesetreatments.   Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 11 (6): 911-916, 2011 913 Table 1: Effect of soil NPK and foliar nitrogen applications on percentage of height increment of “Picual” seedlingsFoliar application with different N sources---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Soil applicationControlUrea 0.5%Ammonium nitrate 0.5%Calcium nitrate 0.5%NPK 0.5%Mean0 g N/year110 l246.7 e213.5 h230 f226.7g205.4 D25 g N/year142 k251 d230 fg232 f250 d221 C37.5 g N/year173.5 i291 b290 b227.5 g273.3 c251.1 A50 g N/year163.7 j295 a293 ab216.7 h274 c248.5 BMean147.3 D270.9 A256.6 B226.5 C256 BTable 2: Effect of soil NPK and foliar nitrogen applications on leaves number of “Picual” seedlingsFoliar application with different N sources---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Soil applicationControlUrea 0.5%Ammonium nitrate 0.5%Calcium nitrate 0.5%NPK 0.5%Mean0 g N/year51 j134 c122 d105 f115 e105.4 B25 g N/year67 i137 c135 c109 f133 c116.2 A37.5 g N/year72 h151 a141 b 102 f134 c120 A50 g N/year73 h153 a143 b92 g135 c119.2 AMean65.75 E143.8 A135.25 B102 D129.25 C Table 3: Effect of soil NPK and foliar nitrogen applications on lateral shoot number of “Picual” seedlingsFoliar application with different N sources---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Soil applicationControlUrea 0.5%Ammonium nitrate 0.5%Calcium nitrate 0.5%NPK 0.5%Mean0 g N/year33333325 g N/year333343.237.5 g N/year343453.850 g N/year343353.6Mean33.533.24.2Table 4: Effect of soil NPK and foliar nitrogen applications on stem diameter of “Picual” seedlingsFoliar application with different N sources---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Soil applicationControlUrea 0.5%Ammonium nitrate 0.5%Calcium nitrate 0.5%NPK 0.5%Mean0 g N/year2.3 g2.5 ef2.5 ef2.5 ef2.4 fg2.44 C25 g N/year2.3 g2.7 e2.7 e2.9 d2.9 d2.7 B37.5 g N/year2.4 fg2.9 d2.7 e3.3 b3.2 bc2.9 A50 g N/year2.3 g3.1 c2.6 e3.6 a3.3 b2.98 AMean2.32 C2.8 B2.62 B3.07 A2.95 ATable 5: Effect of soil NPK and foliar nitrogen applications on leaf dry weight of “Picual” seedlingsFoliar application with different N sources---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Soil applicationControlUrea 0.5%Ammonium nitrate 0.5%Calcium nitrate 0.5%NPK 0.5%Mean0 g N/year48.9 j58.7 fg59.7 ef62.6 b55.257 C25 g N/year51.2 i59.3 f61.8 c62.9 ab57.1 h58.5 B37.5 g N/year55.6 g61 d62.5 b63.5 a59.3 f60.4 A50 g N/year57.3 h61.9 c63 a63.2 a60.1 e61.1 AMean53.2 E60.2 C61.7 B63 A57.9 D   Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 11 (6): 911-916, 2011 914 Table 6: Effect of soil NPK and foliar nitrogen applications on root number of “Picual” seedlingsFoliar application with different N sources---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Soil applicationControlUrea 0.5%Ammonium nitrate 0.5%Calcium nitrate 0.5%NPK 0.5%Mean0 g N/year4 bc5 ab4 bc 4 bc4 bc4.2 A25 g N/year5 ab5 ab4 bc3 c3 c4 A37.5 g N/year6 a5 ab4 bc5 ab5 ab5 A50 g N/year4 bc6 a4 bc4 bc5 ab4.6 AMean4.75 A5.25 A4 A4 A4.25 ATable 7: Effects of soil NPK and foliar nitrogen applications on root length of “Picual” seedlingsFoliar application with different N sources---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Soil applicationControlUrea 0.5%Ammonium nitrate 0.5%Calcium nitrate 0.5%NPK 0.5%Mean0 g N/year19 cd16.5 e26.5 b25 b19 cd21.2 A25 g N/year 10.5 g20.5 c22.5 c20.5 c14.517.7 B37.5 g N/year19.5 c15.5 ef19 c d17.5 de31 a20.5 A50 g N/year16.5 e15.5 ef15 f18 d18 d16.6 BMean16.4 B17 B20.7 A20.2 A20.6 A Stem Diameter:  As shown in Table 4, stem diameter was Root Length:  Data in Table 7 clearly demonstrated thatvaried according to the source of applied fertilizer. In thisthere was no specific trend in response to soil application,respect, stem diameter significantly responded to thewhereas soil application of NPK at 37.5g N/year producedincrease in crystalon rate. On the contrary, sprayinghigher root length without significant differences than thecalcium nitrate or crystalon at 0.5% increased the stemcontrol treatment. Regards the effect of foliar applicationsdiameter and recorded (3.07 and 2.95 cm), respectively.with ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate and crystalonThe highest value of stem diameter was recorded from(NPK) at 0.5%, they formed a high value of root lengtholive seedlings fertilized with the high rate of soil(20.7, 20.2 and 20.6 respectively). Meanwhile, combinationapplication (crystalon as 50g N/year) plus sprayingbetween soil application at 37.5g N/year and foliar calcium nitrate at 0.5%. application with crystalon at 0.5% recoded the highest Leaves Dry Weight (%):  Obviously Table 5 cleared thatleaf dry matter percentage of Picual olive seedlings DISCUSSION responded to soil or foliar applications when appliedindividually. Whereas, leaf dry matter percentageFrom the above mentioned results, it could beincreased significantly by increasing soil application fromnoticed that all tested growth parameters were affected by0 to 50g/year as crystalon and ranged from 57 gm to 61.1different treatments except lateral shoot number values.gm, respectively. Spraying calcium nitrate at 0.5%Growth performance (percentage of seedling height produced high leaf dry weight comparing with the otherincrement, leaves number per, lateral shoots number, stemfoliar applications. Meanwhile, the highest leaf dry matterdiameter, leaf dry weight %, root number and root length) percentage was recorded from seedlings fertilized withwas enhanced with increasing soil applicationhigh NPK rate (50g N/year) with spraying calcium nitrateconcentration (0 to 50g N/year). Whereas, soil applicationat 0.5%.with crystalon at 37.5g N/year was the best treatment Root Number:  Results in Table 6 indicated that rootfollowing vegetative parameters: percentage of seedlingnumber values were increased insignificantly withheight increment, lateral shoot number, root number andincreasing soil fertilizer rates. Also, foliar applications hadroot length. Meanwhile, it didn’t differ significantly thanno significant differences concerning their effects on rootthe highest concentration (50g N/year) concerning leavesnumber. The highest root number was recorded fromnumber, stem diameter, leaf dry weight. These results aretreatment of soil application at 50g N /year + foliar spraysharmony with those found by Nawaf and Yara [13] whowith urea at 0.5%.stated that “young olive trees benefit from low levels of root length value. since it led to the highest significant value of the   Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 11 (6): 911-916, 2011 915 NPK and additional fertilizers would not be significant”.4.Römheld, V. and M.M. El-Fouly, 1999. Foliar nutrientHowever, NPK are considering being essentialelements for plant growth and development. Moreover,Bonomelli et al. [14] stated that “during the first growingseason, cherry plants on dwarfing Gisela 6 rootstock havelow N demand and low N uptake efficiency”. In regards tofoliar application with different forms of nitrogen,spraying urea at 0.5% on olive seedlings cv. Picual gave better results for percentage of height increment, leavesnumber and root number. For the meantime, sprayingcalcium nitrate was the most effective treatment comparedwith the others, concerning stem diameter, leaf dry weightand root length. These results partially agreed with Sheo[15] who mentioned that, the seedling growth of KarunJamir ( C. aurantium ) and Cleopatra mandarin ( C. reshni )was significantly increased by spraying urea and GA 3 alone or in combination. Ameliorative effects of Ca (NO) 32 on plant growth were reported by Al-Harbi [16], Türkmen et al.  [17, 18] and Belind et al. [19] since, calcium controls plant growth, ion exchange properties and enzymeactivity. In other studies, there were negative effects of high Ca doses (100 and 200 mg/kg soil) on growth criteria[20], since it has been known that calcium is also a saltresource for soils [20]. This result may be attributed to theroles of calcium in plants, since addition of calcium mayincrease use efficiency and availability of nitrogen to plant and therefore increase growth, yield and root growthas reported by Belind et al  . [19] on avocado. CONCLUSION Foliar application can play important role and be very profitable in deficient case of nutrient elements. Theseelements will be rapidly taken up by the trees and thelevels will increase dramatically in the leaves. Moreover,this technique could be enhancing the efficiency of soilapplication. REFERENCES 1.Martin, G.C., 2003. Olea europaea  L. olive. RetrievedApril 3, 2010 from USDA Forest Service website:http://nsl.fs.fed.us/wpsm/Olea.pdf.2.Spenneman, D.H.R. and L.R. Allen, 2000. Feral olives( Olea europaea ) as future woody weeds in Australia:a review. Australian Journal of ExperimentalAgriculture, 40: 889-901.3.M.A.L.R., 2007. Ministry of Agriculture and LandReclamation Economic Affairs-Study of Important theAgriculture Statics, (2): 353.application: challenge and limits in crop production.Proc. of the 2 International Workshop on Foliar  nd Fertilization, April 4-10, 1999. Bangkok, Thailand, pp: 1-34.5.Mallarino, A.P., M.U. Haq, D. Wittry andM. Bermudez, 2001. Variation in soybean response toearly season foliar fertilization among and withinfields. Agron. J., 93: 1220-1226.6.Ben Mimoun, M.O., M. Loumi, M. Ghrab, K. Latiriand R. Hellal, 2004. Foliar potassium application onolive tree. IPI regional workshop on Potassium andFertigation development in West Asia and NorthAfrica; Rabat, Morocco, 24-28 November, 2004.7.Inglese, P., G. Gullo and L.S. Pace, 2002. Fruit growthand olive quality in relation to foliar nutrition andtime of application. Acta Hort., 586: 507-509.8.Gonzalez, C., Y. Zheng and C.J. Lovatt, 2010.Properly timed foliar fertilization can and shouldresult in a yield benefit and net increase in grower income. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 868: 273-286http://www.actahort.org/ books/868/868_36.htm9.Miller, R.J. and R.B. Smith, 1976. Nitrogen balance inthe southern San Joaquin Valley. J. Environ. Qual.,5: 274-278.10.Mérigout, P., M. Lelandais, F. Bitton, J. Renou,X. Briand, C. Meyer and F. Daniel-Vedele, 2008.Physiological and Transcriptomic Aspects of ureauptake and assimilation in arabidopsis plants.Plant Physiology, 147: 1225-1238.11.Caballero, J.M. and C. Del Rio, 2001. Métodos demultiplicación. In: D. Barranco, R. Fernández-Escobar, and L. Rallo, (Eds.), El cultivo del olivo. Mundi-Prensa, Madrid, pp: 91-117.12.Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple Range and Multiple"F" tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.13.Nawaf, M.F. and Yara K. Masa`deh, 2006.Response of two-year-old tree of four olive cultivarsto fertilization. American-Eurasian J. Agric. andEnviron. Sci., 1(3): 185-190.14.Bonomelli, C., H. Gilabert and M. Ayala, 2010. Nitrogen uptake, growth and biomass accumulationin the first growing season of cherry trees on Gisela6. Acta Hort., 868: 177-184.15.Sheo, G.S.I.P., 1999. Effect of foliar application of urea, GA and ZnSO on seedling growth of two 3   4 citrus species. J. Appl. Hort., 1(1): 51-53.16.Al-Harbi, A.R., 1995. Growth and nutrientcomposition of tomato and cucumber as affected bysodium chloride salinity and supplemental calcium.J. Plant Nutr., 18: 1403-1416.
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