EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF JUTE (Corchorus capsularis L.) SEEDS ON GERMINATION, VIGOUR AND EMERGENCE ATTRIBUTES

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A series of experiments were conducted to assess the germination, vigour and emergence of jute seeds collected from five different sources of Bangladesh. The seed germination and vigour estimation experiments were laid out at the Agronomy laboratory,
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  Md. Mahbubul Islam , Md. Abdur Rahman Sarkar, Nargis Akter, S. M. Moniruzzaman and Ali Alamgir (2008) Ee!t o dierent sour!es o "ute ( Corchorus capsularis  #.) seeds on germination, $igour and emergen!e attributes. %. Sher&e&'angla Agri!. ni$., 2(2) *+&*. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF JUTE ( Corchorus capsularis  L.)SEEDS ON GERMINATION, VIGOUR AND EMERGENCE ATTRIBUTES Md. Mahbubul Islam 1 , Md. Abdur Rahman Sarkar  2 , Nargis Akter  3 ,S. M. Moniruzzaman 4  and Ali Alamgir  5  1 !rin"i#al S"ienti$i" %$$i"er, Agronom& 'i(ision, 3 Senior S"ienti$i" %$$i"er, )reeding 'i(ision, 4 Senior S"ienti$i"%$$i"er, !lanning *raining and +ommuni"ation 'i(ision,  5 S"ienti$i" %$$i"er, ute -arming S&stems 'i(ision o$ )angladesh ute Resear"h Institute, 'haka12/0 and 2 !ro$essor, 'e#artment o$ Agronom&, )angladesh Agri"ultural ni(ersit&, M&mensingh,. ABSTRACT A series o$ e#eriments ere "ondu"ted to assess the germination, (igour and emergen"eo$ ute seeds "olle"ted $rom $i(e di$$erent sour"es o$ )angladesh. *he seed germination and(igour estimation e#eriments ere laid out at the Agronom& laborator&, )angladesh uteResear"h Institute )RI, 'haka in "om#letel& randomized design ith $our re#li"ation andthe emergen"e e#eriments ere "ondu"ted at greenhouse o$ )RI, 'haka and $ield o$ uteAgri"ulture 6#erimental Station A6S, Manikgan in randomized "om#lete blo"k designith $our re#li"ation during Mar"h to une 2//4. *he treatments "onsisted o$ $i(e di$$erentseed sour"es (iz., i )angladesh ute Resear"h Institute )RI, ii )angladesh Agri"ulture'e(elo#ment +or#oration )A'+, iii -armers o$ Manikgon, i( -armers o$ 7ishoregonand ( 8o"al market. *he (ariet& +981 o$ the Corchorus capsularis  8. as used as stud&material. *he results re(ealed that the germination, (igour inde and "oe$$i"ient o$ germination o$ +981 (aried signi$i"antl& due to seed sour"es. :ermination, (igour, "oe$$i"ient o$ germination obser(ed better in )RI seeds $olloed b& )A'+. 6mergen"e,sur(i(abilit& and relati(e $ield emergen"e (aried signi$i"antl& $or seed sour"es. )RIseeds #er$ormed better in these res#e"ts hile gron under greenhouse and $ield"onditions. Signi$i"antl& #ositi(e "orrelations ere obser(ed among germination, (igour inde and emergen"e. 7e& ards; <hite ute  Corchorus capsularis  8. , germination, (igour, emergen"e, sur(i(abilit&, relati(e emergen"e. INTRODUCTION Seed =ualit& is an im#ortant "onsideration "om#rising se(eral "om#onents. *he "om#onents are;anal&ti"al #urit&, s#e"ies #urit&, $reedom $rom eed seed, germination "a#a"it&, (iabilit&, (igour,seed size, seed health, moisture "ontent et". nless, the seeds ha(e better =ualit&, the use o$ other in#uts or management o$ "ro# #rodu"tion ill be"ome meaningless *homson,1>0>.A germination test is ala&s ad(isable be$ore #lanting to determine seed (iabilit&. A sim#legermination test "ould not =uanti$& the =ualit& o$ seed and not ala&s determine the $ield #lanting(alue o$ a seed lot. ?igh germination #er"entage ma& not ne"essaril& shos good standestablishment in the $ield. Seed (igour test o$ten gi(es better #redi"tabilit& o$ $ield #er$orman"eMarshall and Na&lor, 1>@4. -reshl& har(ested ute seeds "ontain about 2/25 moisture and   #ossess no dorman"&. *here$ore, it is highl& essential to dr& the ute seed in sun $or at least 4 da&sto redu"e the moisture "ontent to about 0>.ute seed =ualit& does not (ar& onl& $rom $armer to $armer, but also $rom sour"etosour"eMollah et al  ., 2//2. Sin"e there is no other a& to #rodu"e or #ro"ure ute seed and no suitablemethod is knon $or their #ro#er =ualit& #otential, the seedsmen and groers $re=uentl& $a"e ahea(& loss b& using loer grade seeds. In$ormation relating to su"h (iabilit&, (igour andemergen"e o$ ute seed are (er& s"ant& under )angladesh "ondition. Moreo(er, the "ategor& andetent o$ ute seed =ualit& and emergen"e o$ di$$erent sour"es and their relationshi# are &et to beelu"idated.   *he #resent stud& as, there$ore, undertaken to assess the germination, (igour andemergen"e o$ hite ute seed sour"es. MATERIALS AND METHODS *he laborator& e#eriments ere "ondu"ted at the +ro# management laborator&, Agronom& di(isiono$ )angladesh ute Resear"h Institute )RI. *he emergen"e e#eriment as "ondu"ted atgreenhouse o$ +entral Station, 'haka and at $ield o$ ute Agri"ulture 6#erimental Station, agir,Manikgon o$ )RI during Mar"h to une 2//4. *he treatments "onsisted o$ $i(e seed sour"es o$ the (ariet& +981 (iz., i. )RI, ii. )angladesh Agri"ultural 'e(elo#ment +or#oration )A'+,iii. -armers o$ Manikgon, i( -armers o$ 7ishoregon and (. 8o"al market. !rimar& seedsam#les o$ 25/ g ea"h $rom 2/ $armers o$ ea"h lo"ation ere "olle"ted randoml&. All the #rimar&seed sam#les ere mied thoroughl& to make a "om#osite sam#le o$ ea"h lo"ation. -rom the"om#osite sam#les 5//g seeds ere taken and as regarded as submitted sam#le. *he submittedseed sam#les ere ke#t in bron #a#er bags. 8o"al market seed sam#les ere "olle"ted and #ro"essed as similar method o$ $armer sour"e o$ ea"h lo"ation. All the seed sam#les "olle"ted$rom the di$$erent seed sour"es ere labeled #ro#erl& and #reser(ed in :ene )ank o$ )RI at 2/ / + till the sam#les ere used $or "ondu"ting res#e"ti(e resear"h. <orking seed sam#les ere taken$rom the #reser(ed seed sam#les as #er re=uirement. *otal #ro"edure as maintained $olloingthe rules o$ IS*A IS*A, 1>>>. *he laborator& e#eriments ere "ondu"ted b& using +om#letel& Randomized 'esign andBgreenhouse and $ield e#eriments b& Randomized +om#lete )lo"k 'esign ith $our re#li"ations.A$ter "olle"tion o$ seed sam#les the seeds ere used $or $olloing tests. Germinatin te!t 2  %ne hundred seeds o$ ea"h and e(er& sour"e ere e(enl& distributed on the to# o$ $ilter #a#er #la"edith 5ml. ta# ater in #lasti" #etridishs. *he tests ere "arried out in an in"ubator at 3/C1 / +tem#erature. *he germinations ere re"orded a$ter 5 da&s and then "al"ulated the germination #er"entages $olloing IS*A 1>>>. S"ee# $ %erminatin te!t (Vi%&r) *his test as "ondu"ted in laborator& ith the same #ro"edures as germination test. 9igour indeere "al"ulated $or e(er& sour"es b& $olloing ain and Saha 1>01. Vi%&r In#e'  9I D aE1 F bE2 F "E3 F GGG.,<here, a, b and " ere the number o$ seeds germinated a$ter 1, 2 and 3 da&s. *he $inal "ountas made at the end o$ 5 th  da&. Ce$$iient $ %erminatin  as "al"ulated using the $ormula o$ +o#eland 1>0H.  1//  A 1 FA 2 FGG.FA  +oe$$i"ient o$ germination D  A 1 * 1 FA 2 * 2 FGG..FA  *  <here, A D number o$ seed germinated, * D time "orres#onding to A and  D number o$ da&s to $inal "ount. Emer%ene te!t *his test as "ondu"ted in to "onditions; 1 :reenhouse and 2 +ro# $ield to $ind out theemergen"e #er$orman"e in mi"ro and ma"ro management areas, res#e"ti(el&. *he tests took 1/da&s to "om#lete $rom soing to $inal re"ording o$ data. *o hundred seeds #er re#li"ate $or ea"hsour"e ere son in the ea"h soil o$ greenhouse and $ield at the same time $or emergen"e tests.*he $irst "ount o$ emergen"e as made at 2 nd  da& but no seeds emerged ithin this time. -rom 2 nd to 4 th  da& seeds emerged. ?oe(er, $rom 4 th  da& a$ter soing, the death o$ emerged seedso""urred "ontinuousl& u# to 1/ th  da&. A seed as "onsidered emerged hen its $irst to lea(es #rotruded out about 2.5 "m abo(e the soil. -inal emergen"e as re"orded at 1/ da&s a$ter soing. No $urther emergen"e o""urred a$ter this #eriod.*he emergen"e as "ounted on the 4 th  da& under green house and on the 5 th  da& under the $ield $or +981. *he sur(i(abilit& means the $irst stage o$ #lant stand under $ield "onditions. A$ter emergen"e on the 4 th  to 5 th  da& all seedlings did not sur(i(e. A$ter death o$ some #er"entage o$ seedlings o$ +981 $rom 4 to @ da&s at green house and 5 to 1/ da&s under $ield "onditions eredetermined. %n the @ th  da& under green house and 1/ th  da& under $ield, the #er"entages o$ sur(i(edseedlings ere #resented as sur(i(abilit& #er"ent or #lant stand at $irst stage or seedling stage.*he sur(i(abilit& stands ere "al"ulated on the @ th  da& under green house and 1/ th  da& under $ield"ondition.Relati(e emergen"e R.6. ere "al"ulated b& $olloing 6gli and *ekorn& 1>>5.   3   -ield emergen"e R.6. D  . 8aborator& germination'ata as "om#iled and anal&zed statisti"all&B and means ere se#arated $olloing 'MR* method:omez and :omez, 1>@4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS *he germination #er"ent, (igour and "oe$$i"ient o$ germination di$$ered signi$i"antl& due to seedsour"es *able 1. *he highest germination and (igour inde o$ @> and 0H.35 ere $ound in)RI sour"es, $olloed b& )A'+ @0, here (igour inde di$$ered. *he loest (alues o$ germination #er"ent and (igour inde @1 and H4./2 ere obser(ed in $armers seeds o$ Manikgon and $armers seeds o$ 7ishoregon lo"ations, res#e"ti(el&. In "ase o$ germination$armers seed o$ both areas shoed similar #er$orman"e to lo"al market but it di$$ers statisti"all& beteen the $armers sour"es *able 1. It as obser(ed that the germination #er"ent had no realdi$$eren"e beteen to sour"es o$ )RI and )A'+. *he highest (alue o$ "oe$$i"ient o$ germination @/.@H as $ound in the seeds "olle"ted $rom )RI. *he least "oe$$i"ient o$ germination as re"orded ith seeds $rom $armers o$ 7ishoregon and $olloed b& $armer seed o$ Manikgon sour"es 0>.24 and )A'+ 0@.H/ *able 1. Similar results ere re#orted b&7handakar 1>@3. ?e stated that the highest @> germination o$ C.   capsularis  8. as $ound in)RI and $olloed b& )A'+ @0. ?ossain et al  . 1>>4 obser(ed that the ute seed sam#les"olle"ted $rom di$$erent sur(e& sites ga(e mean germination rate ranging $rom 31HH #er "enthi"h as $ar belo than e#e"ted or re"ommended minimum rate o$ @/ #er"ent germination.   *able 1. ualit& #arameters o$ +981 seeds o$ di$$erent sour"es Seed sour"es:ermination9igour inde+oe$$i"ient o$ germination)RI@>.//a0H.35a@/.@Ha)A'+@0.//ab03.52b0@.H/a-armer o$ Manikgon@1.//d01./3"0>.24a-armer o$ 7ishoregon@5.//b"H4./2eH0.4/"8o"al market@2.//"dH@.5Hd05.3@bS@4.@/01.2005.@1+93.1H2.553.H3 In a "olumn $igures ha(ing "ommon letters did not di$$ered signi$i"antl& at1 le(el o$ #robabilit& $olloing 'MR*. 6mergen"e and sur(i(abilit& #er"entages at greenhouse and $ield di$$ered signi$i"antl& $or theseed sour"es *able 2. *he highest $ield emergen"e 0/.H/ and sur(i(abilit& H3.@/ erere"orded in greenhouse andB H4.5/ and 5@.H/, res#e"ti(el& in $ield $or )RI seeds. )A'+ seedsshoed statisti"all& similar results ith )RI in both greenhouse and $ield "onditions. *he loest4  emergen"e and sur(i(abilit& ere obser(ed in $armersJ seed o$ Manikgon under greenhouse and$ield "onditions. Seeds o$ lo"al market shoed better #er$orman"e than seed o$ $armers sour"es inres#e"t o$ emergen"e and sur(i(abilit&. *he relati(e emergen"e as noti"ed (ariable as nonsigni$i"ant $or all seed sour"es under greenhouse and $ield "onditions *able 2. *he (alues o$ )RI seeds under both gron "onditions ere better than that o$ other sour"es. *he results erein agreement ith M"'onald 1>@/ and Islam 1>>0. ?e stated that in three so&bean seeds shoed better indi"ation o$ $inal $ield emergen"e. Moreo(er, 6gli and *ekron& 1>>5 re#orted that standardgermination as signi$i"antl& "orrelated ith $ield emergen"e.Results re(ealed that the "orrelation among germination, (igour inde, "oe$$i"ient o$ germination,emergen"e, sur(i(abilit& and relati(e emergen"e under greenhouse and $ield "onditions eresigni$i"ant and #ositi(e *able 3. *he "orrelations ere "al"ulated in greenhouse emergen"e ithgermination rD/.@1, greenhouse sur(i(abilit& ith germination rD/.@3, relati(e emergen"e atgreenhouse ith germination rD/.HH and $ield emergen"e ith germination rD/.@H, $ieldsur(i(abilit& ith germination rD/.@4, relati(e emergen"e at $ield ith germination rD/.05.Again :reenhouse emergen"e ith (igour inde rD/.04, greenhouse sur(i(abilit& ith (igour inde rD/.@1, relati(e emergen"e at greenhouse ith (igour inde rD/.03 and $ield emergen"eith (igour inde rD/.03, $ield sur(i(abilit& ith (igour inde rD/.00, relati(e emergen"e at$ield ith (igour inde rD/.0H *able 3. Similar results ere obser(ed b& 6gli and *ekron&1>>5. *he& re#orted that the standard germination as signi$i"antl& "orrelated ith $ieldemergen"e. Islam et al  . 2//2 re#orted that highest "orrelation rD>@KK as $ound in #ot "ultureith hot tem#erature treatment germination test o$ C. capsularis 8. and in laborator& standardgermination ith #ot"ulture o$ C. olitorius 8. rD>0KK. *able 2. 6mergen"e, sur(i(abilit& #er"ent and relati(e emergen"e o$ +981 seeds at green house and $ield "onditions as a$$e"ted b& seed sour"es Seed sour"es6mergen"e Sur(i(abilit& Relati(e $ieldemergen"e:reenhouseAt 4 th  da&-ieldAt 5 th da&:reenhouseAt @ th da&-ieldAt 1/ th da&:reenhouseAt 4 th da&-ieldAt 5 th da&)RI0/.H/aH4.5/aH3.@/a5@.H/a/.0>/.02)A'+HH.2/aH2.H/aH/.//a50.4/a/.0H/.02-armer o$ Manikgon4@.2/"41.H/d41.H/d30.//"/.H//.51-armer o$ 7ishoregon51.4/"4H.2/"45.@/"4/.4/"/.H//.548o"al market5>.//b5/.@/b53.4/b4H.H/b/.02/.H2S5@.@/52.H152.4/45.5/+92.3H3.402.3>3.42In a "olumn $igures ha(ing "ommon letter do not di$$er signi$i"antl& at 1 le(el o$  #robabilit& $olloing 'MR*. 5
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