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  MAIA PATRICIA GARCIA THV/THRU ECTODERMAL DERIVATIVES The Nervous System The Central Nervous System:    Brain Structure Function Fates Germ Layer Origin Prosencephalon    future site of telencephalon    future site of diencephalon Determines intelligence and personality, motor function, interpretation of sensory impulses, and sense of smell Cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, corpus striatum, and olfactory bulb Neuroectoderm Relays sensory information between brain regions and controls many autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system Hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus, and subthalamus Neuroectoderm Mesencephalon Relay centre for visual, auditory, and motor system information Colliculi Neuroectoderm Rhombencephalon Responsible for vegetative functioning such as blood pressure and heart rate Myelencephalon and metencephalon regions Neuroectoderm Prosocoel    future telocoel    future diocoel Cavity of the developing telencephalon Telencephalon Neuroectoderm Its ventro-lateral walls give way to optic vesicles Optic vesicles Neuroectoderm Epiphysis Bears the pineal body Endocrine organs and biological clock Neuroectoderm Infundibulum Connects the posterior pituitary to the hypothalamus; releases oxytocin and antidiuretic hormones Pituitary gland Neuroectoderm Anterior choroid plexus Secretes cerebrospinal fluid Choroid plexus Neuroectoderm Basal plate Associated with motor functions Neural tube Neuroectoderm Spinal cord Support for neuroblasts Spinal cord Neuroectoderm Central plate Neuroectoderm  The Peripheral Nervous System:    Eyes   Structure Function Fates Germ Layer Origin Optic cup Absorbs incoming light prior to detection by photoreceptors Retina Neuroectoderm Pigmented epithelium Nourishes retinal visual cells Cornea and lens vesicle Neuroectoderm Retina Creates the image seen by the eye Retina Neuroectoderm Optic lens Refracts light so it focuses on the retina Lens Surface ectoderm    Ear    Structure Function Fates Germ Layer Origin Otic vesicles Develops into the membranous labyrinth Inner ear Surface ectoderm    Olfactory Organs Structure Function Fates Germ Layer Origin Olfactory epithelium Responsible for detecting odours Mucous membrane Surface ectoderm Olfactory canal Transmit olfactory nerves Olfactory canal Surface ectoderm External nares For breathing Nostrils Surface ectoderm Internal nares Filter for the respiratory system Choanae Surface ectoderm    Cranial Nerves Structure Function Fates Germ Layer Origin Optic nerves (II) Transmits visual information from retina to brain Optic nerve Neuroectoderm Trigeminal ganglion (IV) Biting, chewing, facial sensations Trigeminal nerve Neural crest Acoustico-facialis ganglion (VII-VIII) Controls the facial muscles, transmits sound and equilibrium information from inner ear to brain Facial nerves, and vestibulocochlear nerve Neural crest Glossopharyngeal ganglion (IX) Help control blood pressure within the carotid arteries and the aorta Glossopharyngeal nerve Neural crest  The Skin Structure Function Fates Germ Layer Origin Epidermis Body’s major barrier, regulates the amount of water released by the body Skin Surface ectoderm Melanophores Permits colour change Melanophores Surface ectoderm Additional Structures Structure Function Fates Germ Layer Origin Oral sucker Position maintenance in flowing water, suck up prey Mouth Surface ectoderm Oral cavity Bite, chew and swallow food, for breathing Mouth Surface ectoderm Stomodeum depression Forms the mouth Mouth, anterior lobe of pituitary gland Surface ectoderm
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