Dudukuhan Tree Farming Systems in West Java: How to Mobilize Self-Strengthening of Community-Based Forest Management

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Dudukuhan are traditional tree farming systems in West Java, Indonesia and can be divided into four types: (1) timber systems, (2) mixed fruit-timber-banana-annual crop systems, (3) mixed fruit-timber systems, and (4) fallow systems. Traditionally
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   1 DUDUKUHAN TREE FARMING SYSTEMS IN WEST JAVA: HOW TO MOBILIZE THE SELF-INTEREST OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS? Gerhard E.S. Manurung 1 , James M. Roshetko 2 , Suseno Budidarsono 1  and Joel C. Tukan 1   1 World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) – Bogor, Indonesia 2 Winrock International and World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) – Bogor, Indonesia  Abstract Dudukuhan are traditional tree farming systems in West Java, Indonesia. Dudukuhan can be divided into 4 types: 1) timber system, 2) mixed fruit-timber-banana-annual crops system, 3) mixed fruit-timber system, and 4) fallow system. Traditionally all types of dudukuhan are managed on an extractive basis, few inputs (quality germplasm, fertilizers, labor, etc) are allocated to these systems. This management approach is caused by: limited land tenure, small land size, off-farm employment opportunities, limited market access, and farmers’ limited experience with intensive tree management. Depending on the socioeconomic conditions and market opportunities facing a farmer, the allocation of a specific piece of land may shift between the four types of dudukuhan. This transformation occurs gradually over a number of years and affects the tree biodiversity and total number of trees in the system. A desire for tree products, market opportunities and land tenure status are the key factors that influence farmers’ decision concerning which type of dudukuhan to develop. Positive changes in these factors have a positive influence on tree biodiversity and tree density. Income generation is the primary factor influencing farmers’ choice of tree species. Soil conservation is a secondary but important factor influencing both choices of dudukuhan and tree species. Farmers are interested in intensifying the management of their dudukuhans, but hesitate because they do not know where to focus their efforts. Experience indicates that farmers in Nanggung may be best served by transforming their traditional subsistence tree farming systems into semi-commercial enterprises that yield products to meet both home and market demand. Agriculture and forestry extension officer in district level, subdistrict government, NGOs and research institutes can facilitate this process by providing access to quality inputs, training and information. However, the driving force should be farmers’ self-interest to improve their livelihoods.  A. Background  Agroforestry is a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resources management system that, through the integration of trees on farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversifies and sustains production that derives from the (potential) social, economic and environmental benefits for all land users (World Agroforestry Centre, 2004). In Indonesia, most agroforestry systems are established through shifting cultivation, which complements relationships between trees and crops, and between forest and farming (Michon and de Foresta, 1995). The complementary relationship is that the natural forest may support livelihoods of local people and at the same time forest vegetation may gradually establish on farms (de Foresta et al. , 2000). Indonesia boasts a number of agroforestry models that established gradually with the integration of both biophysical and socioeconomic functions. Examples of these models include: the repong damar resin producing system in Krui, Lampung; the jungle rubber systems in Jambi and South Sumatera; the tembawang (fruit and timber products) system in West Kalimantan; the pelak system in Kerinci-Jambi, the durian gardens in Gunung Palung-West Kalimantan, the parak system in Maninjau-West Sumatera, and the talun-dudukuhan systems in West Java (de Foresta et al. , 2000). Dudukuhan are traditional tree farming systems in West Java, Indonesia. Dudukuhan can be divided into 4 types: 1) timber system, 2) mixed fruit-timber-banana-annual crops system, 3) mixed fruit-timber system, and 4) fallow system. These systems are distinguished from homegardens (pekarangan) by location – away from the house – and a lower level of   2 management. Traditionally all types of dudukuhan are managed on an extractive basis, few inputs (quality germplasm, fertilizers, labor, etc) are allocated to these systems. This management approach is caused by: limited land tenure, small land size, limited market access, and farmers’ limited experience with intensive tree management. Limited management results in low system productivity and low farm income.  A study was conducted to characterize dudukuhans and evaluate their potential as a system for poverty reduction. Three key points were addressed: 1) tree diversity and dudukuhan profiles based on sample villages and dudukuhan types, 2) farmers’ perceptions of the selection and uses of tree species on management of dudukuhan systems, and 3) identify and analyze ideas for empowering and mobilizing self-interest of farmers on enhancing productivity and profitability of dudukuhan systems. Results from the study were used by World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Winrock International and the Indonesia Institute for Forest and Environment (RMI) to help farmers improve the productivity and market-orientation of their dudukuhan systems. This paper reports on key results of that study. B. Methods Site .  The study was conducted in Nanggung subdistrict located at longitude 106 o  27’ 35” to 106 o  35’ 26” and latitude 06 o  33’ 25” to 06 o 45’ 45”. Nanggung subdistrict consists of 10 villages with an area of around 11,000 km 2  and elevation between 400 and 1800 m.a.s.l.. Nanggung has 74,211 inhabitants and 17,187 households. Average landholding per household is 0.3 ha of irrigated riceland and 0.5 ha of dudukuhan. Dudukuhan systems cover 16.7% of total area of the subdistrict. While 73.3% of the household heads consider themselves farmers, agriculture provides only 31.2% of household incomes. Trade (operating small shops), the service sector, gold mining, bentonite mining and plantation work are alternative sources of household income (Budidarsono et   al. , 2004). The study was conducted in three sample villages that were purposively selected according to their location (upstream, mid-stream, and downstream). The villages selected are Cisarua, Curug Bitung, and Parakan Muncang. Tree Diversity and Dudukuhan Profiles .  The tree diversity and profiles of dudukuhans were assessed through an inventory of 36 dudukuhans. Three of each dudukuhan type were inventoried in each of three villages. The Dynamic Sample Unit method developed by Sheil et   al . (2002) was used to conduct the inventory. The method uses 40-m long transect lines to measure species richness, tree density, and tree basal area. The transect line is divided into 8 tree sampling units as depicted in Figure 1. Within each unit a maximum of 5 trees are measured. Trees must have a diameter at breast height (dbh 1 ) greater than 10 cm. For each sampling unit, the following data were recorded: the number of trees, the species of trees, the dbh of each tree and distance of the fifth tree from the transect line (d1, d2, d3 … as depicted in Figure 1). The maximum distance for searching up to five stems is 20 m (d7). The maximum distance for searching in each cell before deciding it is ‘empty’, is 15 m (d6). 1   Diameter breast height is a trees diameter a height of 1.3 meters above the ground.     3   10 m Figure 1. Tree sample units along 40 m of transect line Farmers’ Perceptions Regarding Tree Selection and Uses.  Participatory Rural  Appraisal (PRA) methods, namely group discussions and individual interviews, were used for collecting information about farmers’ perceptions regarding tree selection and use. Farmers’ perceptions on tree selection were compiled under three main variables: i) tree biophysics, ii) landscapes and climate, iii) socioeconomic. Fourteen variables were used to identify farmers’ perceptions regarding tree use: (a) leaves’ biomass, (b) canopy shading, (c) root characteristics, (d) fast growth and fruiting, (e) tree use value, (f) pests-diseases, (g) dudukuhan size, (h) slope angle (in degrees), (i) soil type and fertility, (j) elevation, (k) weather and rainfall, (l) marketing opportunities, (m) land tenure statue, and (n) government policy. Farmers’ perceptions on tree use were explained by eight variables including: (a) foods, (b) income, (c) fire wood, (d) construction, (e) fodder, (f) medicine, (g) erosion control, and (h) child education. Management of Dudukuhans . Dudukuhan management - including inputs, outputs and financial returns - were documented as part the farm and household economic study of dudukuhan owners in Budidarsono et   al . (2004). Thirty five households were purposively selected to be interviewed in each of the sample villages mentioned above. C. Results Tree Diversity and Dudukuhan Profiles .  Measurements were made on a total of 36 dudukuhans. Dudukuhan sizes reported by the landowners varied between 0.054 and 0.419 ha (Budidarsono et   al. , 2004). A total of 51 tree species (excluded banana plants) were identified as components of dudukuhan systems. These include 25 fruit species and 26 timber species. The Shannon-Weiner Index (H’) (Smith, 1990) was used to describe the tree diversity in the dudukuhan systems. Shannon-Weiner Index for each sample village is as follows: Cisarua (1.02), Curug Bitung (0.97), and Parakan Muncang (1.19). Statistically, there is no difference between villages in tree diversity (Shannon-Weiner Index).    A high number of trees of afrika timber ( Maesopsis eminii Engl .) (34.6%) compared to other tree species causes the tree diversity value for Curug Bitung village to be lower than the values for the other sample villages, although the number of tree species in Curug Bitung village was higher than either Cisarua or Parakan Muncang villages. Table 1 shows that the number of fruit tree species was higher than timber tree species in all sampled villages. The numbers of fruit tree species in Parakan Muncang and Curug Bitung villages were higher than in Cisarua village. But the numbers of timber tree species in Curug Bitung and Cisarua villages were higher than in Parakan Muncang village. d8 d1 d4 d5 d7 20 m d6 15 m d3 d2   4 Table 1. Tree species composition based on samples villages in the Nanggung subdistrict in West Java. Tree Number (per Ha) Percentage (%) Local Name Botanical Name Cisarua Curug Bitung Parakan Muncang Cisarua Curug Bitung Parakan Muncang Fruit Products Cempedak  Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr 0 0 1 0.0 0.1 0.2 Cengkeh Eugenia aromatica O.K. 2 4 10 0.5 0.7 1.5 Duku Lansium domesticum Corr. 6 7 2 1.5 1.3 0.3 Durian Durio zibethinus Murr. 3 6 15 0.7 1.1 2.2 Gandaria Bouea macrophylla Griff. 0 0 1 0.0 0.0 0.2 Jambu air Syzygium aqueum (Burm.f.) Alston 0 1 0 0.0 0.2 0.0 Jengkol  Archidendron pauciflorum (Benth.) Nielsen 8 21 31 2.0 3.7 4.6 Kapuk randu Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. 1 2 5 0.1 0.3 0.8 Kecapi Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f.) Merr 1 4 21 0.3 0.7 3.1 Keluih  Artocarpus communis J.R. & G.Forster 0 1 0 0.0 0.1 0.0 Kemang Mangifera caesia Jack ex Wall. 11 2 10 2.8 0.3 1.5 Kemiri  Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. 3 0 0 0.8 0.0 0.0 Kepayang Pangium edule Reinw. 1 4 0 0.3 0.7 0.0 Kupa gowok Eugenia polycephala Miq. 7 4 3 1.8 0.7 0.4 Kweni Mangifera odorata Griff. 4 5 18 1.0 0.8 2.7 Lamtoro Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit 1 0 0 0.2 0.0 0.0 Limus Mangifera foetida Lour. 4 1 1 0.9 0.1 0.1 Mangga Mangifera indica L. 0 0 5 0.0 0.0 0.8 Manggis Garcinia mangostana L. 0 2 9 0.0 0.3 1.3 Melinjo Gnetum gnemon L. 0 0 14 0.1 0.0 2.0 Menteng Baccaurea racemosa (Reinw.) Muell. Arg 0 1 1 0.0 0.1 0.1 Nangka  Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. 42 11 13 10.0 2.0 1.9 Pala Myristica fragrans Houtt. 0 2 0 0.0 0.4 0.0 Petai Parkia speciosa Hassk. 4 21 10 1.0 3.8 1.6 Pisang Musa sp. 54 121 267 13.0 21.4 39.7 Rambutan Nephelium lappaceum L. 6 9 39 1.4 1.7 5.8 Timber Products  Afrika Maesopsis eminii Engl. 121 195 48 29.2 34.6 7.1 Calik angin Macaranga tanarius 1 0 0 0.2 0.0 0.0 Cangkalak Knema laurina (Blume) Warb. 0 3 0 0.0 0.6 0.0 Jirak Symplocos ferruginea 1 0 0 0.3 0.0 0.0 Kanyere Bridelia minutiflora Hook. f. 0 1 0 0.0 0.1 0.0 Karet Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. 0 0 17 0.0 0.0 2.5 Kihiang Cassia javanica L. 1 0 0 0.2 0.0 0.0 Kihujan Engelhardia spicata Lech. ex Bl. 0 1 0 0.0 0.1 0.0 Kihuru Litsea noronhae 4 0 0 1.0 0.0 0.0 Kikacang Maniltoa grandiflora Scheff. 1 0 0 0.2 0.0 0.0 Kirinyuh Eupatorium inulifolium H.B.K. 0 1 0 0.0 0.1 0.0 Kisampang Euodia latifolia DC. 29 19 0 7.1 3.4 0.0 Meranti Shorea spp. 0 3 0 0.0 0.5 0.0 Mindi Melia azedarach L. 1 1 2 0.2 0.1 0.3 Pinus Pinus merkusii Jungh. & De Vr. 10 5 1 2.5 0.8 0.2 Pulai  Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. 0 0 1 0.0 0.0 0.1   5 Puspa Schima wallichii Noronha 22 6 35 5.3 1.1 5.3 Rasamala  Altingia excelsa Noronha 0 1 0 0.0 0.3 0.0 Renghas Gluta renghas L. 5 0 0 1.3 0.0 0.0 Salam Syzygium lineatum (Bl.) Merr. & Perry. 0 3 0 0.0 0.6 0.0 Seketi Eurya acuminate 0 0 2 0.0 0.0 0.3 Sengon Paraserienthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen 58 92 86 14.0 16.4 12.9 Sungkai Peronema canescens Jack 0 1 0 0.0 0.2 0.0 Suren Toona sureni (Bl.) Merr 0 1 0 0.0 0.3 0.0 Tisuk Hibiscus cannabinus L. 0 3 1 0.0 0.5 0.2 Waru Hibiscus tiliaceus L. 0 0 1 0.0 0.0 0.2 Total 416 566 671 Shannon-Weiner Index (H’) in each dudukuhan type include: i) timber system (0.44), ii) mixed fruit-timber-banana-annual crops system (1.18), iii) mixed fruit-timber system (1.31), and iv) fallow system (1.10). The T-test results for tree diversity (H’) in each type of dudukuhan show significant differences between the timber system and both the mixed fruit-timber-banana-annual crop system and the mixed fruit-timber system, at the 1% level. But the differences between the timber system and the fallow system are significant at the 5% level. The tree diversity (H’) of mixed fruit-timber-banana-annual crops system indicates no significant difference with the mixed fruit-timber system, but it indicates significant differences at 5% level with the fallow system. Tree diversity (H’) of mixed fruit-timber system indicates significant differences at 5% level with fallow system. Table 2 shows that the priority species are those that occur in almost all dudukuhan types, with high number of trees:  Musa sp . , Maesopsis eminii Engl . , Paraserienthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., Durio zibethinus Murr., Archidendron pauciflorum (Benth.) Nielsen, Mangifera odorata Griff., Euodia latifolia DC . , Parkia speciosa Hassk , Nephelium lappaceum L., and  Schima wallichii Noronha are the priority species for the Nanggung area.   Table 2. Tree species composition based on dudukuhan types Dudukuhan Types (trees/ha) Local Name Botanical Name Timber system (%) Mixed fruit-timber-banana-annual crop system (%) Mixed fruit-timber system (%) Fallow system (%) Total (%) Fruit Products Cempedak  Artocarpus integer 0 0.0 1 0.1 2 0.4 0 0.0 2 0.1 Cengkeh Eugenia aromatica O.K. 0 0.0 7 0.9 7 1.6 8 2.2 22 1.0 Duku Lansium domesticum 0 0.0 8 1.0 9 2.0 4 1.1 20 0.9 Durian Durio zibethinus Murr. 1 0.2 11 1.5 14 3.2 5 1.5 32 1.5 Gandaria Bouea macrophylla Griff. 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 0.3 0 0.0 2 0.1 Jambu air Syzygium aqueum (Burm.f.) Alston 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.3 0 0.0 1 0.1 Jengkol  Archidendron pauciflorum (Benth.) Nielsen 0 0.0 26 3.4 15 3.4 39 10.9 80 3.6 Kapuk randu Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. 0 0.0 8 1.1 1 0.2 1 0.3 10 0.5 Kecapi Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f.) Merr 0 0.0 28 3.8 5 1.1 2 0.5 35 1.6 Keluih  Artocarpus communis J.R. & G.Forster 0 0.0 1 0.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.0 Kemang Mangifera caesia Jack ex Wall. 0 0.0 7 1.0 20 4.4 4 1.2 31 1.4 Kemiri  Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. 0 0.0 1 0.2 3 0.7 0 0.0 4 0.2 Kepayang Pangium edule Reinw. 0 0.0 2 0.3 4 0.9 0 0.0 7 0.3 Kupa gowok Eugenia polycephala Miq. 0 0.0 2 0.3 15 3.3 2 0.4 19 0.9
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