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DC Fault Hazard Reports
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  Keaton Johns Casey   Webb GEO   1035 9/27/17 DC Fault   Hazard Reports Metropolis Metropolis is   filled with various    potential problems   in the event   of    an earthquake    because of    the   variety   of the   age of    infrastructure. The   Business   District   of Metropolis is   the most   recent addition   of the city   with most   of the    buildings    being built   within   the last 20   years;   these buildings are the   most reinforced   and up   to code.   The   houses,   skyscrapers, and historic   landmarks   of the city   were built over    50   years ago,   and are not as   up to code. In   the event   of    a major earthquake, the    buildings   in the Business   District   will be   able to   withstand the force   of the   earthquake much  better than in the   other places. The   main   additional hazard   that will   cause major damage to the   city   is liquefaction. The foundation   of    the city   is   on   old swamps   and marsh lands,   which is   a very   unstable substrate. In the   event   of    an earthquake,   the water mixed   within   the foundation will   rise to the   top because of the   intense   shaking.   When the   water rises to the   top, the   ground turns   into   a makeshift “quicksand”,   and the buildings    begin   to sink    into the   ground. All buildings   will    be heavily affected    by   liquefaction,   no matter how   reinforced   they are. Another    infrastructural disaster that   may occur concerns   the bridges that   run   over a   river connecting   the   two   sections of    the city.   The    bridges are at   high risk of    collapsing due to   intense shaking. In   order    to prevent major    disaster in the event   of    an earthquake   of a magnitude   6.3   or higher, there must    be major    reinforcing done on   the   homes   and other structures that   are more than 50 years   old. There   must    be certain    places in the   city that   are designated   “safe spots” for medics   and   first responders to   take injured    people where   they   are at minimal   risk    of further    harm. There   should be   at least two spaces   on the southeast   side of    Metropolis, and at   least one on   the northeast   side.  Smallville Smallville   is a   diverse city   filled with    both rural and   urban aspects.   It   seems to be a   very flat   landscape,   and there is   a river    which separates the   two   main parts   of the   city. The   residencies are on the   west side   of the   city/river, and   the Business   District   is on the   east side of    the city/river. The   foundation is   400   million year old limestones and   sandstones (an   incredibly   stable foundation),   so the   amount of    seismic   energy transmitted from an   earthquake will    be smaller than with   a more   unstable foundation. However,   unconsolidated sediments   are along   the river    channel. This is a   much more unstable   foundation.   This could prove   very   dangerous for    any residencies   and businesses   that   are very   near the river    as the   threat of    liquefaction poses   itself.   The    bridges that   connect the west   and east sides of    the city   will most   likely   collapse   due to the   liquefaction and huge amounts of seismic   energy   transmitted from   its unstable    base. The   main   concern to worry   about   in the event   of    an earthquake   deals with infrastructure. Almost   all of    the    buildings   in Smallville   were built    before   the 1970s, meaning that   they   are not as reinforced as   they should    be. In   order    to minimize   damage in the   event of    a major earthquake,   the   main focus should  be   on reinforcing   all   the buildings   and bridges   so that   they are up   to code   and able   to withstand the   intense   shaking.   There should    be at   least three designated   safe spaces in the   city: one in the rural   section   of the   west side,   one in   the urban   section of    the west   side, and   one in the   center of the   Business District. Gotham Gotham   City is one of    the cities   with the   most diverse   amount   of challenges   and potential hazards concerning earthquakes. There   is a   varying amount of    the ages   of     buildings; the commercial   and government buildings   in   the Business   District   (which lies in   the center    of the city   along a   small river channel)   were   all built   within   the last 20   years, and   the residential   areas have houses that   were    built   from the 1970’s   to now.    No   matter    what, these buildings   are recent enough   that they   have the    proper reinforcement to withstand the   shaking   of a major    earthquake. However,   the city   was built   upon loosely compacted sediments   which is   an unstable foundation;   some of    the suburbs were   even    built upon reclaimed   land due to   the close proximity  to   the   coast.   The   threat of    liquefaction is   very prevalent   in the   city   of Gotham,    but at least,   the  buildings   are strong   enough to   stay intact.   Bridges connecting   the north   and south    parts of the city   that run   over    the river    will definitely    be   impacted by a major    earthquake. At least three   safe spaces should    be determined around   the city.   They   should be   able to form   close to   an equilateral triangle,   and can   cover the majority   of    the city.   One should be centralized in the middle   of    the southern    portion   of the   city, one   should be in   the northwestern  part of the   map   along Highway 10, and the   third   should be   in the northeastern    part of the   city   on the   other side of    the river. Star   City  Star    City   seems to be   in the least   amount of    harm’s   way along the   DC Fault. There   have been   no   records   of major earthquakes along   the Star    City   segment of    the DC   Fault,  but   that does   not mean   there couldn’t be one. The    biggest threats   to Star    City   would    be the   dangers of landslides   and water damage. The   foundation is   mainly built   upon volcanic deposits and debris    because the city   lies east of    a tall mountain range. Should   a major    earthquake occur, the   amount   of loose   rocks and debris that come   from the   mountains could be   devastating. The   city   is   also flanked    by   two   major rivers: one to   the   west flowing   south,   and one huge river    to the   north flowing   east. The   amount   of shaking would   not   necessarily   cause a tsunami, but   some of    the water in   the river    could be majorly displaced into   the   city. The    buildings   in the   Business   District have    been built   within   the last 40   years, so   there is some   understanding   of reinforcement in   the design   of the    buildings.   However, while   many of    the residences   have    been built   in the   last 20   years, some   houses   date back    to 70   years at   the most. These particular houses   need to    be reinforced immediately   to prevent any further     potential damage. The   safe spaces   in the city   have   to be more   inland   to be out   of harm's   way from the landslides   and water displacement. They   could   lie   along the   center of    the city,   in the   northern, true   central,   and southern parts   of the   city for    maximum   coverage.   
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