D0131618

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D0131618
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   IOSR Journal of Sports and Physical Education (IOSR-JSPE) e-ISSN: 2347-6737  , p-ISSN: 2347-6745 , Volume 1, Issue 3 (Jan. 2014), PP 16-18 www.iosrjournals.org    www.iosrjournals.org 16 | Page  Comparative Study on Self Confidence among University Level Football, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi Players Mahaprasad Ghosh 1 ,   Md. Kamrul Hassan 2 , Arindam Ghosh 3 1   Research Scholar 2  Research Scholar     Department of Physical Education Visva Bharati University Santiniketan-731235 West Bengal, India 3  Lecturers in Physical Education, Falakata College, Jalpaiguri West Bengal, India Abstract: Self-confidence is the belief that one can successfully perform or desired behavior. It is an important  factor to achieve our ultimate goal. Football, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi are very famous game in India involving various physical fitness components like speed, co-ordination, power, strength, agility etc. The Researcher was very keen to find out the self-confidence level of North Bengal University Football, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi  players before attending the inter university tournament. The purpose of this study was to compare the self-confidence level between Football, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi players. Eighteen each male University level  Football, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi players from North University (Mean Age 23) were volunteered in this study.  Hardy and Nelson (1992) questionnaire was used to measured the self confidence level of the subjects. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to find the overall mean significance difference of three groups. List  significance difference (LSD) post-hoc test was used to measure the paired mean significance difference. The result indicated there was a mean significance difference in self-confidence level between Football, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi players of North Bengal University. The researcher was concluded that Kho-Kho players are more confident than the Football and Kabaddi players before attending the respective inter university tournaments. Key Words: Self-Confidence, Football, Kho-Kho, Kabaddi. I.   Introduction S elf-confidence has been defined as the belief that you can successfully perform a desired behavior. High levels of self-confidence can enhance positive emotions, concentration, setting more challenging goals, increasing effort and developing effective competitive strategies. Self- confidence is characterized by high expectancy of success. It can help individuals to arouse positive emotions, facilitate concentration, set goals, increase effort, focus their game strategies and maintain momentum (Weinberg and Gould. 1999). Self-confidence is widely believed to be an important aspect of the psychological make-up of the individual athlete (Jones and Hardy, 1990). Research studies indicate that the most consistent factor distinguishing highly successful from less successful athletes is confidence (Jones and Hardy, 1990). For many athletes, an explanation of the concept of self-confidence is hardly necessary as they know intuitively what it is. Indeed, self-confidence is so palpable in some athletes; one can almost reach out and touch it. Their confidence is reflected in everything they say and do, in what they wear and how they look. A high level of self-confidence is one of the most consistently reported psychological characteristics of elite athletes, and research has shown that self-confidence often distinguishes highly successful athletes from the less successful ones (Gould, Weiss, & Weinberg, 1981; Highlen & Bennett, 1979; Mahoney & Avener, 1977; Weiss, Wiese, & Klint, 1988). Understanding the psychological processes that emphasize self- confidence in sports has been of significant importance to the theorists in the field of sport psychology .  Research has established a firm connection of self- confidence in sports over the years. It also contains three more features of behavior called the stimulating, directing and sustaining the ability (Weinberg & Williams, 1998). Most sport psychology researchers, applied consultants, coaches, and athletes agree that self-confidence is an essential contributor to optimal sport  performance. Research has identified self-confidence as a characteristic that clearly distinguishes between successful and unsuccessful athletes. The self-confidence in sport has been examined as critical things deeply impact on sport performance (Dureja and Singh 2011). Football, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi, being a team sport, demands a lot of skill, fitness and above all it develops team spirit and character in a person. In a complex game such as Football, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi,  performance is determined by several factors, namely skill, fitness, technique, tactics, training etc. It is well understood that only an appropriate combination of psychological and physical ability can determine a player’s success in any sports. Psychological training combined with physical training on scientific and daily basis will help the players to attain peak performance and to sustain it for longer duration. Since the number of research on such psychological aspect of Football, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi are not too many, that’s why the researcher was motivated to take it up for this study.  Comparative Study On Self Confidence Among University Level Football, Kho-Kho And Kabaddi www.iosrjournals.org 17 | Page The aim of the present study was to compare the self-confidence level among Football, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi players of North Bengal University. II.   Method Subjects: Total fifty four (N=54) university level male players, eighteen (18) in each group (Football, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi), from North Bengal University (Mean Age 23) were volunteered in this study. Parameter: Self-Confidence: Standard Hardy and Nelson (1992) questionnaire for self-confidence was used to measured the self-confidence level of the subjects. The test consists of four questions with six levels of responses. The levels of changes from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The respondents were made to encircle the appropriate number, which suited their attitude. The scale was revalidated by administering the questionnaire on 54 active  players of North Bengal University. Scoring This scoring range of this questionnaire was 4 to 24. The higher score indicate the high level of self-confidence. Statistical analysis: One- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to find out the overall mean significance difference of three groups and least significance difference (LSD) post-hoc test was used to measure the paired mean significance difference. III.   Result and Discussion Self- Confidence: TABLE-I Descriptive Statistics of Self Confidence Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Minimum Maximum Kho Kho 20.83 1.29 0.31 19.00 23.00 Football 18.89 1.37 0.32 16.00 22.00 Kabaddi 17.94 2.21 0.52 14.00 21.00 From the Table-I, it is clear that the mean values in self-confidence of the university level football, kho-kho and Kabaddi players were 18.89, 20.83 and 17.94 respectively. The mean self-confidence level of the kho-kho players (20.83) was higher than the football and Kabaddi players. Figure- I Mean Score of Self Confidence (Score in numbers)  Comparative Study On Self Confidence Among University Level Football, Kho-Kho And Kabaddi www.iosrjournals.org 18 | Page Table-II shows the one- way analysis of variance of self-confidence among North Bengal University football, kho-kho and Kabaddi players. TABLE-II One- Way Analysis Of Variance for Self-Confidence among North Bengal University Football, Kho-Kho and Kabaddi Players ANOVA for Self Confidence Sum of Squares df Mean Square OF TF Between Groups 78.11   2   39.06  Within Groups 143.22   51   2.81  13.91* 5.06  Total 221.33   53   *Significant at 0.05 level. TABLE-III LSD Post- Hoc Test For Self-Confidence Among North Bengal University Football, Kho-Kho And Kabaddi Players  From the Table-II, it is clear that the obtained F- ratio 13.91 is greater than the table F-ratio 5.06. Hence it is significant at 0.05 level of confidence for the degree of freedom 2 and 51. Table-III showed the LSD mean deference values of self-confidence among the football, kho-kho and Kabaddi players. The differences in mean scores in self- confidence between football and kho-kho was found 1.94, between football and Kabaddi players was 0.94, and between kho-kho and cricket was found to be 2.89. The self-confidence level of the university level kho-kho players was significantly (p<.01) better than that of the football and Kabaddi players. Result also indicated that self-confidence of the footballers and Kabaddi  players did not differ significantly. IV.   Conclusion On the basis of the results   it may be concluded that: 1.   Kho-kho players of the North Bengal University Kho-kho team possessed higher self-confidence than the Football and Kabaddi players of the respective team.   2.   In sports competition, self-confidence is an important aspect needs for every player which may vary  player to player and event to event but it depends upon a lot of psychic factors.   Reference [1].   Gould, D., Weiss, M.R., & Weinberg, R. (1981). Psychological characteristics of successful and non- successful Big Ten wrestlers. Journal of Sport Psychology, 3, 69-81. [2].   G. Dureja and S. Sing. (2011). Self-confidence and decision making between psychology and physical education student: A comparative study. Journal of Physical Education and Sports ManagementVol.2 (6), pp.62-65. [3].   Highlen, P.S., & Bennett, B.B. (1979). Psychological characteristics of successful and non-successful elite wrestlers: An exploratory study. Journal of Sport Psychology,1, 123-137 [4].   Weinberg and Gould. (1999). Foundation of Sports and Exercise Psychology, (2 nd  ed., pp. pp. 287). [5].   Weiss, M.R., Wiese, D.M., & Klint, K.A. (1989). Head over heels with success: The relationship between self-efficacy and  performance in competitive youth gymnastics. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11, 444-451. [6].   Woodman and Hardy. (1990).The relative impact of cognitive anxiety and self-confidence upon sport performance: a meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 2003, 21, 443  –  457. LSD Post Hoc Comparison of Self Confidence Sport Groups (I) Sport Groups (J) Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error P-value 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound Kho Kho Football 1.94* 0.56 .001 0.82 3.07 Football Kabaddi 0.94 0.56 .097 -0.18 2.07 Kho Kho Kabaddi 2.89* 0.56 .000 -4.01 -1.77
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