Crew Structure on Board Merchant Vessels

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  Crew structure on board merchant vessels Life on board of a vessel is very different from any other shore based jobs or organization. Each crew member has a precise rank and carries certain responsibilities in order to maintain the vessel operations successful. Mainly, the vessel’s  crew has two types of seafarers: officers and ratings. Both these types of crew members have the capacity to work either on deck or in the engine room. The Deck crew  is in charge with the vessel navigation, watch keeping, maintaining the ship’s  hull, cargo, gear and accommodation, taking care of the ship’s  life saving and firefighting appliances. The deck department is also the one in charge with receiving, discharging and caring for cargo. According to the vessel’ s hierarchy, the deck officers are as follows: Master, Chief Officer, Second Officer, Third Officer and Deck Cadet (deck officer to be). The supreme authority on board a merchant vessel is the Master  . The entire crew is under his command. He is responsible for the safety, use and maintenance of the vessel and makes sure that every crew member carries out his work accordingly. He is also in charge of the following: payroll, ship’s  accounting, inventories, custom and immigration regulations, and the ship ’s  documentation. In order to become Master, a seafarer must first have several years of experience as a deck officer and as Chief Officer.  According to the vessel’s  hierarchy, the first deck officer and the head of the deck department after the Master is the Chief Officer   or   Chief Mate . He is in charge with the vessel navigation, watch duties, charging and discharging operations. The Chief Officer also directs all the other officers on deck, creates and posts watch assignments and implements the Maste r’s  orders in order to maintain safe operations and maintenance of the vessel. Second Officer   or Second Mate  is the next in rank after the Chief Mate and is the ship’s  navigator, focusing on creating the ship’s  passage plans and keeping charts and publications up to date. Apart from watch keeping, the Second Officer may also be designated to train the cadets on board or to fulfill the rank of security, safety, environmental or medical officer.   The Third Officer   or Third Mate  is the fourth deck officer in command and is usually the Ship’s  Safety Officer, responsible with ensuring the good functioning of the fire-fighting equipment and life saving appliances. He undertakes bridge watches and learns how to become a Second Officer.  A Cadet  on board a merchant vessel receives structured training and experience on board and learns how to become a deck officer.  Apart from the officers, the deck department crew also consists of ratings, such as  AB (Able Body Seaman), OS (Ordinary Seaman) and Boatswain. The AB  is part of the deck crew and has duties such as: taking watches, steering the vessel, assisting the Officer on watch, mooring and unmooring the vessel, deck maintenance and cleaning. The AB also secures and unsecures the cargo and carries our deck and accommodation patrols. OS  is the crew member whose main duty is to maintain the cleanliness of the whole ship and serves as assistant for the AB. Being an OS is considered to be an apprenticeship, a period called “sea   time”  in order to be allowed to take courses and training for AB. Both AB and OS are usually supervised by a Boatswain , who is also a rating, in charge with examining the cargo-handling gear and lifesaving equipment as well. The Boatswain usually holds an AB certificate as well. The structure for the deck department on board merchant vessels is mainly the same on all vessel types.    Struktur kru di kapal Pelayaran Niaga   Hidup di atas kapal sangat berbeda dengan pekerjaan atau organisasi berbasis pantai lainnya. Setiap anggota kru memiliki pangkat yang tepat dan memiliki tanggung jawab tertentu untuk menjaga agar operasi kapal tetap sukses. Terutama, awak kapal memiliki dua jenis pelaut: perwira dan pemeringkat. Kedua anggota kru ini memiliki kapasitas untuk bekerja baik di geladak atau di ruang mesin Kru Deck bertugas dengan navigasi kapal, menjaga penjaga, menjaga lambung kapal, kargo, perlengkapan dan akomodasi, mengurus peralatan penyimpanan dan pemadam kebakaran kapal. Bagian dek juga merupakan satu-satunya yang bertanggung jawab atas  penerimaan, pemakaian dan perawatan kargo. Menurut hirarki kapal, petugas geladak adalah sebagai berikut: Guru, Chief Officer, Petugas Kedua, Petugas Ketiga dan Kader Dek (petugas dek). Kewenangan tertinggi di atas kapal dagang adalah Master. Seluruh kru berada di  bawah komandonya. Dia bertanggung jawab atas keamanan, penggunaan dan perawatan kapal dan memastikan bahwa setiap anggota awak melakukan pekerjaannya sesuai dengan itu. Dia juga bertanggung jawab atas hal-hal berikut: penggajian, akuntansi kapal,  persediaan, peraturan adat dan imigrasi, dan dokumentasi kapal. Untuk menjadi Master,  pelaut harus terlebih dahulu memiliki pengalaman beberapa tahun sebagai petugas dek dan sebagai Chief Officer. Menurut hirarki kapal, petugas dek pertama dan kepala departemen dek setelah Master adalah Chief Officer atau Chief Mate. Dia bertugas dengan navigasi kapal, tugas menonton, operasi pengisian dan pengosongan. Chief Officer  juga mengarahkan semua perwira lainnya di dek, membuat dan mengeposkan jam tangan dan menerapkan perintah Guru untuk menjaga operasi dan perawatan kapal yang aman. Petugas Kedua atau Mate Kedua berada di urutan teratas setelah Chief Mate dan navigator kapal tersebut, dengan fokus membuat rencana perjalanan kapal dan membuat grafik dan publikasi terkini. Selain berjaga-jaga, Petugas Kedua juga dapat ditunjuk untuk melatih kadet di kapal atau untuk memenuhi pangkat petugas keamanan, keselamatan, lingkungan atau medis. Petugas Ketiga atau Pasangan Ketiga adalah petugas dek keempat yang bertugas dan biasanya Petugas Keselamatan Kapal, bertanggung jawab untuk memastikan fungsi yang baik dari peralatan pemadam kebakaran dan alat-alat hemat hidup. Dia melakukan jam tangan jembatan dan belajar bagaimana menjadi Petugas Kedua. Seorang Kadet yang berada di kapal dagang merangkap menerima pelatihan terstruktur dan pengalaman di kapal dan belajar bagaimana menjadi petugas dek. Selain petugas, kru departemen dek juga terdiri dari peringkat, seperti AB (Able Body Seaman), OS (Pelaut Biasa) dan Perahu Boat. AB adalah bagian dari awak kapal dan memiliki tugas seperti: mengambil arloji, mengarahkan kapal, membantu petugas berjaga, menambal dan melepaskan kapal, perawatan dan pembersihan dek. AB  juga mengamankan dan mengamankan muatan dan membawa patroli dek dan akomodasi kami. OS  adalah anggota kru yang tugas utamanya adalah menjaga kebersihan seluruh kapal dan berfungsi sebagai asisten AB. Menjadi OS dianggap magang, sebuah periode yang disebut waktu laut agar diperbolehkan mengikuti kursus dan pelatihan untuk AB. Baik AB dan OS biasanya diawasi oleh Boatswain, yang juga merupakan pemeringkat, yang bertugas memeriksa peralatan penanganan kargo dan perlengkapan menyelamatkan nyawa juga. Boatswain biasanya memegang sertifikat AB juga. Struktur untuk departemen dek di kapal merchant umumnya sama pada semua jenis kapal.
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