Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the dimensionality of Students' Readiness of using Social-Media for Learning in Nigeria

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The adoption of Internet resources for learning continues to grow in the world today. Despite the abundant benefit of utilizing social media which is an offshoot of web 2.0, an internet resource for communication and interaction, its use have not
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   ATBU, Journal of Science, Technology & Education (JOSTE); Vol. 3 (2), April, 2015ISSN: 2277-0011 Page |109 Shittu, ., Gambari, A. I., Yusuf, M. O., & Alabi, O. T.Copyright © 2015 JOSTE. All Rights Reserved (  Confirmatory Factor Analysis ofthe dimensionality ofStudents’Readiness of using Social-Media for Learning in Nigeria By  ShittuAhmed Tajudeen  1   , Gambari Amosa Isiaka  1   , YusufMudashir Olalere  2   ,&Alabi Omotayo Thomas  1   1 ScienceEducationDepartmentFederal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria 2 Department of Educational TechnologyUniversity of Ilorin,, +234-803-689-7955 & 08033950774 ABSTRACT The adoption ofInternetresources for learning continues to grow in the world today. Despite the abundant benefitof  utilizingsocial media which is an offshoot of web 2.0,an internet resourceforcommunication and interaction, its use have not beenfullyembrace as a teachingtool in Nigeria.In this study therefore, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted  to measure student readiness towards the use of social media in some selected universities in Nigeria. The participants of  the study comprises of 700 hundred students fromfouruniversities in south-western Nigeria. A survey instrument was developed for the purpose of the study. The internal consistent and the validity of the instrumentwas established.The reliabilityof the instrument indicated 0.80, 0.84 and 0.70Cronbach alphavalueson each three construct respectively.A factor analysiswith VarimaxRotationconducted revealeda three factor measurement scaleon students’ readiness and  these are (Readiness, Willingness, and Awareness). A confirmatory factor analysiswas conducted which confirm the three factors. Based on the resultfromthedataanalysis,the hypotheses of the study revealed a statistical relationship between the three constructs extracted. The study showed that there is no significant difference between male and female student readiness to use social media for learning. The study recommendsthe imperative deployment of social media for leverage teaching and learning amongthe present generation of students in the population sample for the study. It also provides an empiricalmeasurement scale for ascertaining student readiness touse social mediaplatformfor learning in future. Key words:  Social-media, Confirmatory factor analysis, Readiness, Willingness, Awareness, INTRODUCTION The advancement ofthe Internet technologyhassignificantly influenced human communication andinteraction,as well as how teaching and learning isimplemented,in the world today. The Internet iscontinuously increasing the convenience in accessinginformationamong the present generation of students.The Internet has allowedthe world knowledge to beplaced at the finger-tip of the learner(Lever-Duffy &McDonald, 2011).The “Net-generation” as thepresentstudents are known haveshifted their interaction andcommunication online (Shittu,Kamal, & Ahmad,2011).According to Donaldson (2011) the Internet haveexpanded communication methods, thereby increasedopportunity for collaboration, access to traditionallearning, and easy access to information.In the worldtoday, the most prominent Internetresources that thestudents are familiar with forcommunication andinteraction aresocial networking software. T   .  A   ATBU, Journal of Science, Technology & Education (JOSTE); Vol. 3 (2), April, 2015ISSN: 2277-0011 Page |110 Shittu, ., Gambari, A. I., Yusuf, M. O., & Alabi, O. T.Copyright © 2015 JOSTE. All Rights Reserved (  Social mediais an off-shoot of Web 2.0, andWeb 2.0 is a second generation of the Internettechnology that allows interactivity, connectivityandinteroperabilityamong users.Social mediaprovidesvarious features that allow participatory approacheswhere the users can contribute and produce his/herown content. It also allowsconvergence of tools that hascreated a new culture termed “collective intelligence”(O’Brien, 2007; Sunil, Alex & Deborah, 2009). Collectiveintelligence connotes that individuals can buildcollectively on each other’s knowledge by forming“participatory communities”, (Jenkins, 2006). Theparticipatory culture is a culture community where allmembers contribute and pool collective knowledge, andcompare collective intelligence in participatorycommunities to a pedagogical process that can be likento scaffolding (Jenkins, 2006). In learning, scaffolding isa strategy usedin providing support for studentlearning.The current thinking on the type and nature oflearning that the 21 st century learner should acquireinform the widely endorsement ofsocial-media (Web 2.0tool) for learning.Globally educators are encouraged toshift from traditional method of instruction to morestudents oriented and student centered collaborativeapproach(Jimoyiannis, Tsiotakis, Roussinos&Siorenta,2013).The push for adoption of social-media foreducational activities continues to grow in the recenttimebecause it can be usedto foster students learning.Considering the rate of use of social media among theNet generation a number of institution across the worldare now using it to supplement classroom instruction.While some critics were ofthe opinion that the presentgenerations of students areusing the site forunproductive and anti-social activitiesalone, somewereof opinion thatthe site could beusedto improve studenttechnology proficiency thereby fostering studentlearning.Astudy conducted on teenagers’use of socialmedia in Malaysia by Shamsudin (2009) revealed thatthe teenagers are heavy user of social media andtherefore it is important for the teacher to find a way ofadopting the site for students learning in order tostemthe tide of unproductive use of social media by thesegroupsof user. Similarly, Pew Internet and American LifeProject Survey also revealed that almost everyteenager’sin America were into social-media use.Though, the study reported that 60% of thestudent usesocial-media for educational related activities(Lenhart,2010).Thestudy further enumeratesthe potential ofsocial media as a site that can be use in education forearly identification of student needs;engaging student;increase student achievement; managing informationabout student; and a platform of providing access tomarginalized student.The evidence of adoption of social-media by thepresent generation of students either in the advanced orless-advanced society is in-refutable. Fromteenager,young adult to older students are increasinglyconnecting and communicating through the online socialmedia platform.Despite the rate of usage of this newinnovation in human communication, Goldfard, Pregibon,Shrein and Zyko (2011)reported that students andteacher have been reluctant to use social media forimplementing curriculum. Wagner (2005) opined that theadoption of technology does not always translate tousage for learning. Therefore, there is need to probe intoother variables that may encourage or hindered use ofnew innovation for educational related activities. Firstand foremost, it is imperativeto understand usersawareness and readiness to deploy an innovation forother purpose than whatis been srcinallydesignedfor.Technologyreadiness according to Erumban and deJong,(2006) in Elliot, Hall and Meng (2008) “is the extent towhich individuals desire to use a new technology”, while, T   .  A   ATBU, Journal of Science, Technology & Education (JOSTE); Vol. 3 (2), April, 2015ISSN: 2277-0011 Page |111 Shittu, ., Gambari, A. I., Yusuf, M. O., & Alabi, O. T.Copyright © 2015 JOSTE. All Rights Reserved (  Parasuraman (2000) posited that “individual who areready to use technology are more likely touse it”.Similarly, Davis (1989) posited that perceived usefulness(PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU) are the mainreason why a user may accept or reject to use anytechnology.Evidence abound thatthestudentsin advancednation are using social-media for educational purposes.For instance, ECAR (2008) study showed that 49% ofstudents reported to using social-media in theiracademic life as a way of communicating with theirclassmate and peers (Salaway& Caruso, 2008).Also, Al-Rahimi, Othman, and Musa (2013) reported the growinguse of social media for learning in Malaysia.The successrecorded in social media use for learning in developednations has been reportedin several studies, but in thecase of less developed nation like Nigeria there arefewer empirical studies inthe adoption of this newphenomenonfor learning among the students. Therefore,thisstudy is to determine thestudent readinessin theuse of social media for learning in Nigerian. In doing this,the studytry to identify variables that determinestudents readiness through factor analysis. LITERATURE REVIEW The reality in the world today is that socialmedia has significantly altered human communicationand interaction. Despite digital divide,almost all thepresent generations of students are using one form oftechnology or the other for communication as a result ofinvention of Information Technology devices and theInternet. For instance, Farhan (2014) reported thataverage undergraduate students in the world are inpossession ofone form of technology with Internetfacility to connect with their friend and acquaintances onsocial media (Facebook). The feature in social media hasattracted its use for teaching and learning activities inthe recent time because it has revolutionalize the field ofcommunication and how users access, exchange andshare knowledge.Farhan (2014), Morofushi and Pasfield-Neofitou (2012), Lu and Churchill (2012), Ham andSchnabel (2011) reported a number of developinganddevelopednations likeMalaysia, Saudi-Arabia,Japan,China, Hong-Kong, UK, and USA using social media as ateaching and learning tool.In term of usage of this new media for learningin Saudi Arabia, Farhan (2014) study on awareness ofusing Facebookfor learning among Hail Universitystudent revealed that the student has a positiveawareness of using Facebook for learning activities.Infact, both male and female studentsare aware andready to integrate the use of Facebook as a medium oflearning. Ina similar study on student readiness to usenew technologies for learning conducted by Rahamat,Shah, Din, and Abd-Aziz (2013) reported that theparticipants of the study displayed readiness andpositive attitude to the use of mobile technologies forlearning.Al-Ammary, Al-Sharooqi and Al-Sharooqi (2014)study on the acceptance of social networkingas alearning toolat University of Bahrain confirm studentreadiness to use SN for learning and thatperceived easeof use and perceived usefulness are very importantfactors for predicting students’ behavioral intentiontowards its use for learning. In addition,a study ofstudents’ readiness towards virtual classroom use forlearning in Palestine conducted by Shraim and Khlaif(2014) revealed that the students have positive attitudetowards the usefulness of virtual learning (e-learning)method but they are not ready to useitnow for theirlearning.In terms of willingness to use virtual learning,68% of the respondents of that studyare keen to use itif it relevant to their learning needs, 58% indicated torecommend the method of study to their colleagues, T   .  A   ATBU, Journal of Science, Technology & Education (JOSTE); Vol. 3 (2), April, 2015ISSN: 2277-0011 Page |112 Shittu, ., Gambari, A. I., Yusuf, M. O., & Alabi, O. T.Copyright © 2015 JOSTE. All Rights Reserved (  73% agree that they prefer the traditional and face-to-face method of learning than using online interaction.The study reportedthat 51% of students showwillingness to adopt the new method of teaching infuture.Several studies have reported and addressvarious issues of readiness of using and adopting ofinternet tools for teaching and learning among lecturersand students.Example of such study was Agboola (2006)study of the awareness and perceptions of academicstaff in using e-learning in Malaysia. In that study, it wasfound out that e-learning training and e-learningconfidence were practical importance in predicting e-learning readiness among the respondents of that study.So and Swatman (2006) finding on the readiness ofHonk-Kong’s primary and secondary school teachers toaccept and adopt e-learning revealed that the teacherare not fully prepared to use internet tool. The studyshows that there is significant difference between maleand female primary and secondary schoolteachers’readiness for e-learning in Hong-Kong.However,Browning, Gerlich and Westermann (2011) study on thenew hyper diverse approach to engaging studentsdeveloped a measurement scale to determine studentperception about social media. The findings from thescale provide a measure of readiness that the facultymember can use to ascertain student readiness toefficiently and effectively use social media for learning.The study revealed among others that therewas nosignificant differencebetween male and female beliefabout social media site adoption foreducation relatedactivities.There are streamsof study that has bearingwith this present study,among the studies was Aydin andTasci (2005) in Turkey, the study assess theorganizational readiness fore-learning with instrumentthathasfour constructs: self-development, innovation,people and technology. Similar to that study was Watson,Winogran and Kalmon (2004) study which develop aninstrument to measure an individual perceived readinessto use e-learning. In this study therefore, effort would bemade toempirically measure student readiness to adoptsocial media for learning since it is a new tool which iscurrently gaining attention of educators all over theworld. METHODOLOGYSample The study isa survey type andquantitative innature. A questionnaire with 5Likertscale option fromStrongly Disagree (1) to Strongly Agree (5) was designedand administered on the respondents of the study.Thesampleof the studyconsisted of750 students fromselected universities intheSouth-WestofNigeria. Inall,150 students each from 5 higher institutions of learningwere involved in the study. Table 1: Characteristic of the Sample of the Study Frequency%Gender Male29456.3%Female22843.1% Faculty of Study Education38774.1% T   .  A   ATBU, Journal of Science, Technology & Education (JOSTE); Vol. 3 (2), April, 2015ISSN: 2277-0011 Page |113 Shittu, ., Gambari, A. I., Yusuf, M. O., & Alabi, O. T.Copyright © 2015 JOSTE. All Rights Reserved (  Science6312.1%Engineering091.7%Social Science6312.1% Level of Study Undergraduate29456.3%Post-Graduate22843.7% Social Media used by Students Badoo6217.8%Facebook49294%2go25649.7%Faceparty183.4%Twitter24947.7%Eskimi6913.2%Whatsapp39074.7%Maxit6011.5%Gtalk7815%Hi55410.3%Friendster458.6%Ning152.9% Frequency of Using SM Daily39675.9%2-3 Time a week9317.8%2-3 Time a month152.9%Once in a month152.9%The Table 1 above presents the demographiccharacteristic of the participants of the study. Out of522 students that finally took part in the study, 294 thatrepresent 56.1% were male, while 228 that represent42.1% were female.Among the participants, 387 (74.1%)were education students, 63 (12.1%) were sciencestudents, 63 (12.1%) were social science students, whileengineering students have the least participants with 09(1.7%) in the study. In all, 294 (56.3%) wereundergraduate students, while 228 (43.7%) were atpostgraduate level.On the frequency and the type ofsocial media use by the students,the result showed thatmost of the students are using one form of social mediaor the other. Specifically, 62 (17.8%) indicated to useBadoo, 492 (94%) uses Facebook, 256 (49.7%) uses 2go,18 (3.4%) uses Faceparty, 249 (47.7%) uses Twitter, 69(13.2%) uses Eskimi, 390 (74.7%) uses Whatsapp, 60(11.5%) uses Maxit, 78 (15%) uses Gtalk,54 (10.3%) uses T   .  A
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