Cloning and Heterologous Expression of a -D-Mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.25)Encoding Gene from Thermobifida fusca TM51

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Cloning and Heterologous Expression of a -D-Mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.25)Encoding Gene from Thermobifida fusca TM51
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   A  PPLIED AND  E NVIRONMENTAL   M ICROBIOLOGY , Apr. 2003, p. 1944–1952 Vol. 69, No. 40099-2240/03/$08.00  0 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.69.4.1944–1952.2003Copyright © 2003, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Cloning and Heterologous Expression of a  - D -Mannosidase(EC 3.2.1.25)-Encoding Gene from  Thermobifida fusca  TM51 Emese Beki, 1,2 Istvan Nagy, 3 Jos Vanderleyden, 3 Szilvia Ja¨ger, 4 Laszlo Kiss, 4 Laszlo Fu¨lo¨p, 5 Laszlo Hornok, 1,2 and Jozsef Kukolya 1 *  Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Microbiology 1  and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 5 Szent Istva´nUniversity, and Agricultural Biotechnology Center, 2 Go¨do¨llo˜, and Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, 4  Hungary, and Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium 3 Received 5 August 2002/Accepted 3 January 2003 Thermobifida fusca  TM51, a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from composted horse manure, was found toproduce a number of lignocellulose-degrading hydrolases, including endoglucanases, exoglucanases, endoxy-lanases,   -xylosidases, endomannanases, and   -mannosidases, when grown on cellulose or hemicellulose ascarbon sources.   -Mannosidases (EC 3.2.1.25), although contributing to the hydrolysis of hemicellulosefractions, such as galacto-mannans, constitute a lesser-known group of the lytic enzyme systems due to theirlow representation in the proteins secreted by hemicellulolytic microorganisms. An expression library of   T.  fusca , prepared in  Streptomyces lividans  TK24, was screened for   -mannosidase activity to clone genes codingfor mannosidases. One positive clone was identified, and a  -mannosidase-encoding gene (  manB ) was isolated.Sequence analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the putative ManB protein revealed substantialsimilarity to known mannosidases in family 2 of the glycosyl hydrolase enzymes. The calculated molecular massof the predicted protein was 94 kDa, with an estimated pI of 4.87.  S. lividans  was used as heterologousexpression host for the putative   -mannosidase gene of   T. fusca . The purified gene product obtained from theculture filtrate of   S. lividans  was then subjected to more-detailed biochemical analysis. Temperature and pHoptima of the recombinant enzyme were 53°C and 7.17, respectively. Substrate specificity tests revealed that theenzyme exerts only   - D -mannosidase activity. Its kinetic parameters, determined on  para -nitrophenyl   - D -mannopyranoside (  p NP-  M) substrate were as follows:  K   m  180  M and  V  max  5.96  mol min  1 mg  1 ; theinhibition constant for mannose was  K  i    5.5 mM. Glucono-lacton had no effect on the enzyme activity. A moderate  trans -glycosidase activity was also observed when the enzyme was incubated in the presence of   p NP-  M and  p NP-  M; under these conditions mannosyl groups were transferred by the enzyme from  p NP-  Mto  p NP-  M resulting in the synthesis of small amounts (1 to 2%) of disaccharides. Thermobifida  spp. are gram-positive, compost- and soil-in-habiting bacteria with broad degradative activity on plant cell wall constituents.  Thermobifida fusca , the most extensivelystudied species of this genus, is the model organism of ther-mophilic, aerobic cellulolytic bacteria (48). While there areample data on the cellulolytic system of   T. fusca  (8, 24, 30, 47,48), the hemicellulolytic enzyme system of this species is stillpoorly characterized. Only one endoxylanase- and an endo-mannanase-encoding gene have been cloned to date (20, 22),although the hemicellulolytic enzyme system of   T. fusca  may beas complex as the well-characterized cellulase system of thisorganism; the latter consists of three endoglucanases, two exo-glucanases, one processive endoglucanase, and a cellobiaseenzyme (23, 43).The complexity of cell wall-degrading enzyme systems is aconsequence of the complex nature of plant cell wall. Hemi-celluloses act as linkers between lignin and cellulose. The highpercentage of hemicellulose fraction in the cell wall of higherplants makes this material the second most abundant biopoly-mer in nature. Besides xylan, mannan is the other major hemi-cellulose constituent. Galactomannan, found in large quanti-ties in seeds of leguminous plants, is composed of ahomogeneous backbone of    -1,4-linked mannose residues, whereas acetylated galactoglucomannan, a main constituent of softwoods, has a heterogeneous backbone of   -1,4-linked glu-cose and mannose residues (7). The complete conversion of galactomannan into galactose and mannose requires the activ-ity of three types of enzymes, namely, endomannanases (EC3.2.1.78),   -galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.22), and   -mannosidases(  - D -mannopyranoside hydrolase [EC 3.2.1.25]). Endoman-nanases catalyze the random hydrolysis of the   -1,4-manno-sidic backbone of the main mannan chain,   -galactosidasescleave the terminal   -1,6-linked  D -galactosyl residues, and  -mannosidases hydrolyze  -1,4-linked mannose residues fromthe nonreducing ends of various oligosaccharides (3).  -Mannosidase-encoding genes have already been clonedfrom mammals (4, 10, 14), fungi (1, 46), and bacteria (9, 17,45). Almost every  -mannosidase belongs to family 2 of glyco-syl hydrolases (GHs) (16), except for the  Pyrococcus  sp.  -man-nosidase, which has been assigned to family 1 (9).Hemicellulases are industrially important enzymes; their usehas been shown to promote pulp bleaching in paper industry.More recent investigations are focused on mannan-degradingenzymes (15). These enzymes are widely used in coffee bean * Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Agricul-tural Biotechnology and Microbiology, Szent Istvan University, PaterK. u. 1., Go¨do¨llo˜ H-2103, Hungary. Phone: 36 28 526100. Fax: 36 28526165. E-mail: kukolya@abc.hu.1944  fermentation to promote the hydrolysis of    -mannan-basedoligosaccharides (37).In general, mannosidases constitute only a small percentageof the proteins secreted by hemicellulose degrading organisms;their purification is therefore rather difficult. This problemcould be solved by cloning and heterologous expression of mannosidase-encoding genes. Earlier we isolated a number of thermophilic, cellulolytic actinomycetes from a compost pile(27), and one of them,  T. fusca  TM51, was found to show anoutstanding cellulolytic-hemicellulolytic activity.The aim of this work was to obtain a better insight into thehemicellulose degrading enzyme system of   T. fusca , the modelorganism of thermophilic, aerobic cellulose-degrading bacte-ria, as only a single endoxylanase encoding gene of this systemhas been cloned from this species to date. In the present paper we describe cloning, sequencing, and heterologous expressionof   manB , a  -mannosidase encoding gene from  T. fusca  TM51,and report the purification and biochemical characterization of the enzyme.Glycosidases, which cleave by retention, such as family 2GHs, hydrolyze their substrates trough a two-step mechanism:first, a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate is produced, which is then hydrolyzed by a general base-catalyzed attack of  water. However, if an appropriate sugar, capable of binding tothe aglycone site, is present in sufficient concentrations, trans-glycosylation may occur (11). This process provides the basis of using glycosidases for enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharidesof physiological and medicinal relevance (41). The synthesis of such complex carbohydrates is difficult to manage by tradi-tional chemical procedures. Another aim of this work was todemonstrate transglycosylase activity of the  -mannosidase en-zyme produced by  T. fusca  TM51. MATERIALS AND METHODSChemicals.  Restriction endonucleases were from Promega, Gibco-BRL (Bur-lington, Ontario, Canada). T4 DNA ligase, Hybond-N nylon membrane, andthiostrepton were obtained from Boehringer Mannheim (Laval, Quebec, Cana-da), Amersham International (Little Chalfont, England), and Fluka (Buchs,Switzerland), respectively. The different  p -nitrophenyl (  p NP) glycosides (includ-ing  p NP   - D -mannopyranoside [  p NP-  M],  p NP-  M,  p NP   - D -glucopyranoside[  p NP-  Glc],  p NP-  Glc,  p NP   - D -galactopyranoside [  p NP-  Gal],  p NP-  Gal,  p NP  - D -fucopyranoside [  p NP-  Fuc],  p NP  - D -xylopyranoside [  p NP-  Xyl], and  p NP   - L  -arabinopyranoside [  p NP-   Ara]), 4-methylumbelliferyl-  - D -mannoside(MU  Man), isopropyl-  - D -thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), birch wood xylan, andlocust bean gum (LBG) were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co (St. Louis,Mo.). MN 300 cellulose powder was obtained from Macherey-Nagel (Duren,Germany). Media and growth conditions.  Escherichia coli  strains were grown in Luria-Bertani medium at 37°C.  Streptomyces lividans  strain TK24 was cultivated onbasal medium (NaNO 3,  1.0 g; KCl, 0.3 g; MgSO 4    H 2 O, 0.5 g; K  2 HPO 4 , 1.0 g; yeast extract, 0.5 g; peptone, 0.5 g; distilled water, 1 liter [pH of medium, 7.6]),containing 0.2% sucrose, at room temperature for protein production. Media were supplemented with 5  g of thiostrepton ml  1 .  T. fusca  TM51 and  T. fusca  ATCC 27730 T  were grown at 50°C in basal salt medium supplemented withdifferent carbon sources. Liquid cultures were shaken at 220 rpm. Solid mediacontained 1.5% (wt/vol) agar-agar (Reanal, Budapest, Hungary). Induction and localization of mannosidase in  T. fusca .  Spore suspensions (10 6 ml  1 ) of   T. fusca  TM51 were used to inoculate 100 ml of basal medium con-taining 0.2% glucose, 1% MN 300 cellulose, 0.2% xylan, or 0.2% LBG as carbonsources. Cultures were incubated at 50°C for 7 days, and  -mannosidase activities were determined on MU  Man substrate by fluorimetry. Cell fractionation.  Cells from cultures, grown on 40 ml of LBG containingbasal medium at 50°C for 4 days, were harvested by centrifugation at 5,000   g  for 10 min at 4°C and washed twice with an equal volume of 0.15 M phosphatebuffer. For separating soluble and cell wall-bound intracellular proteins, cells were disrupted by sonication (Virsonic 300; Virtis, Gardiner, N.Y.) for 6 min at40 W. After centrifugation at 20,000    g   for 15 min at 4°C, the supernatant,containing the soluble intracellular protein fraction, was collected and useddirectly for enzyme assay. The pellet, composed of cell wall and membranedebris, was washed two times with water, centrifuged again, resuspended in thesame volume of 0.15 M phosphate (pH 7.0) buffer, and tested for mannosidaseactivity.Mannosidase activities of four subsamples—culture supernatant, sonicated whole-cell lysate, cell wall plus membrane fraction, and soluble protein frac-tion—were determined on MU  Man substrate by fluorimetry. The reactionmixture contained 1 ml of sample, 1 ml of phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7), and10  l of MU  Man solution (2 mg ml  1 ). The reaction mixture was incubated at50°C for 20 min. One enzyme unit was defined as the amount of enzyme thatreleased 10 nmol of 4-methylumbelliferone per min. Construction of a genomic library of   T. fusca  TM51.  Total DNA isolated from T. fusca  TM51 was partially digested with  Sau 3AI  .  Restricted DNA was frac-tionated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The excised   15-kb fragments werepurified with a Qiaex II gel extraction kit according to the manufacturer’s rec-ommendations (Qiagen, Santa Clarita, Calif.). The fragments were ligated intoplasmid pIJ699 (26) according to the method of Blanco et al. (12).  S. lividans TK24 protoplasts were transformed with the vector, and transformants wereselected on R2-agar plates by the method of Hunter (21), using thiostrepton (100  g ml  1 ) as a positive selection marker. The plates were incubated for 3 days at30°C, and transformants were screened for  -mannosidase activity on MU  Man;positive clones fluoresced under UV light. Cloning and sequencing of   manB .  The 15-kb insert, carrying the whole  manB gene, was subcloned in  E. coli  DH5  . pBluescript and pUC19 plasmids were usedfor subcloning. Standard methods were used for other DNA manipulations (39).DNA and protein sequences were analyzed by using the Genetics ComputerGroup program. The amino acid sequence and domain structure of ManB weredetermined by using Swiss-Prot, EMBL, NCBI, Pfam, and InterPro data banks(5, 6). A phylogenetic tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining method (38)and with the ARB phylogenetic package. Southern blot analysis.  Total DNA from  T. fusca  TM51, digested with  Mlu I, Sac I,  Xho I, and  Pst I and separated on a 1% agarose gel, was transferred onto aHybond-N nylon membrane and probed with the labeled  manB  gene fragment. All hybridization procedures were performed as described by Sambrook et al.(39). The DNA probe was labeled using a random-primed labeling kit, followingthe manufacturer’s recommendations. Production and purification of enzyme.  A mannosidase-positive  S. lividans clone was grown on sucrose containing basal medium supplemented with 5  g of thiostrepton ml  1 for 72 h. Cells harvested by centrifugation (10 min at 10,000   g  ), washed in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), and then resuspended in 50mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4) were disrupted by sonication (10 min at 40 W). Thesuspension was centrifuged for 20 min at 12,000   g  , and the supernatant, usedas cell extract (CFE), was purified with fast-performance liquid chromatography(FPLC) (Pharmacia) by anion-exchange chromatography on a Mono-Q column(buffer A: 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4; buffer B: buffer A plus 1 M NaCl). Enzymeactivities of the fractions were measured by fluorimetry using the MU  Mansubstrate. The enzyme was further purified from the active fractions by gelchromatography on an FPLC Superose-12 column (50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4).The activity and purity of the enzyme were checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) zymography and by silver stain-ing. PAGE zymography.  SDS-polyacrylamide slab gels (0.75 mm thick) were pre-pared according to the method of O’Farrell (35) with 10% acrylamide separatinggel. The silver staining procedure was used for the detection of proteins inpolyacrylamide gels (50). For zymography, gels were renatured by washing twice with isopropanol containing (25%, vol/vol) phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.0) atroom temperature. After two subsequent washing steps with phosphate buffer(0.1 M, pH 7.0), gels were stained for activity with 1 mM MU  Man solution.Enzyme activity was detected under UV light. Enzyme assays.  The  - D -mannosidase activity was assayed by using 100  l of 0.005 M  p NP-  M in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and an appropriatedilution of the enzyme solution in a 1-ml final volume of 0.1 M sodium phosphatebuffer (pH 7.0) at 50°C for 10 min. The reaction was stopped by the addition of 2 ml of 0.2 M sodium borate buffer (pH 10.0), and the release of   p NP wasmonitored at 400 nm. Blank solutions always contained the same componentsexcept for the enzyme solution. Enzyme activity was calculated as units permilliliter. One unit is defined as the amount of enzyme which liberates 1  mol of   p NP per min under the assay conditions.Substrate specificity was determined by using different  p NP glycosides (  p NP- V OL  . 69, 2003 CLONING OF A    -MANNOSIDASE-ENCODING GENE FROM  T. FUSCA  1945   M,  p NP-  M,  p NP-  Glc,  p NP-  Glc,  p NP-  Gal,  p NP-  Gal,  p NP-  Fuc,  p NP-  Xyl, and  p NP-   Ara, respectively) according to the protocol described above.Protein contents were determined according to the method of Lowry as mod-ified by Hartree (19), using bovine serum albumin as the standard. Characterization of the   -mannosidase.  Temperature and pH optima of ManB were determined according to the method of Kurakake and Komaki (29).For kinetic investigations the reaction rate was determined at six differentconcentrations of   p NP-  M (  K   m , 0.5 and 5). The  K   m  and  V  max   values werecalculated by using the GraFit software program (Erithacus Software Ltd.,Staines, United Kingdom). Inhibition experiments were carried out at threedifferent substrate concentrations and six different inhibitor (mannose and glu-cono-lacton) concentrations (  K  i , 0.5 to 5). The  K  i  value was determined fromDixon plots by using the GraFit software.Transferase activity was examined under different reaction conditions in a0.5-ml final reaction volume. The enzyme was incubated in 0.1 M sodium phos-phate buffer (pH 7.0) with  p NP-M at a concentration of 2.5 mM, at roomtemperature in the presence of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl-alcohol addedat 10 and 20% (vol/vol) concentrations.  -Mannosidase was also incubated using25 mM  p NP-  M as acceptor and 25 mM  p NP-  M as donor compounds in 0.1 Msodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), containing 0, 10, and 20% (vol/vol) dimethylsulfoxide at room temperature. Negative controls were run without adding  -mannosidase. Samples taken after 1, 12, 24, and 48 h were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). A Hewlett-Packard 1090 series II liquid chromatograph equipped with a refractiveindex detector, an automatic sampler, and a ChemStation was used to separateproducts of the reaction. The separation was performed on a Hypersil APS(aminopropylsilica) column (4.6 mm by 100 mm), converted into the sulfate formby the method of Kahle et al. (25). Acetonitrile-water mixture (9:1) was used asthe eluant, and 20-  l samples were analyzed. Column temperature was con-trolled by a column oven. Products containing a chromophore group were de-termined by diode array detector at room temperature, at 300 nm. In other cases,a refractive index detector was used at 40°C. Nucleotide sequence accession number.  The GenBank accession number forthe nucleotide sequence of   manB  is AF489440. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONInduction and cellular localization of    -mannosidase in  T.  fusca .  Cultures grown on LBG as the sole carbon sourceshowed high mannosidase activity, whereas cultures grown oncellulose, xylan, or glucose produced no detectable mannosi-dase enzyme. Induction of    -mannosidase production by themannan-containing carbon source is clearly shown in Fig. 1.The cellular location of    -mannosidase activity was deter-mined by comparing the activity of various cell fractions. Theactivity of cell extracts was about sevenfold higher than thatfound in the culture supernatant (15.2 versus 2.1 U ml  1 ). Theactivity of the cell wall-plus-membrane fraction was muchlower (1.8 U ml  1 ) than that of the soluble protein fractionobtained from the disrupted cells (12.1 U ml  1 ). The low levelsof enzyme activities in the culture supernatant and the cell wallfraction may srcinate from spontaneous cell lysis during cul-turing and the occurrence of a small number of nondisruptedhyphae, respectively. Apart from these contaminations ManBcan be classified as a typical soluble, cytoplasmic enzyme. Theintracellular location of ManB is explained by its role in man-nan decomposition; i.e., this protein acts as a terminal compo-nent of the mannan-degrading enzyme system. The  -glucosi-dase enzyme of   T. fusca  is also intracellularly localized, asdemonstrated by Spiridonov and Wilson (43). Thermobifidasand other compost-inhabiting actinomycetes extracellularlyproduce the large variety of cellulases, xylanases, and mannan-ases. On the other hand, their cellobiases,   -xylosidases, and  -mannosidases, which catalyze the final steps of polysaccha-ride decomposition, are often intracellularly located (45). Thisstrategy helps to prevent the consumption of the released sug-ars by other compost-inhabiting microorganisms that are un-able to utilize cellobiose, xylobiose, or mannobiose as they lackthe appropriate enzyme and transport systems.  T. fusca  seemsto have the appropriate transport system, as the  bglABC operon, which has recently been described for this organism(43), encodes two types of sugar permeases, sharing substantialhomology with CebG, a cellobiose-cellotriose transport pro-tein known from  Streptomyces reticuli  (40). Xylobiose and man-nobiose permeases are known from  Aureobasidium pullulans (31), and a similar mechanism may support the mannobioseuptake in thermobifidas as well. Cloning, sequencing, and analysis of mannosidase genefrom  T. fusca .  A genomic library of   T. fusca  was screened formannosidase-positive clones by growing individually 2,000  S. lividans  transformants on liquid Luria-Bertani medium. Super-natants of each culture were tested with MU  Man, and this yielded one positive clone,  S. lividans  J9. A 15-kb DNA fragment responsible for mannosidase activity was subcloned into pUC19 in  E. coli  as host. Pilot DNA se-quencing of the insert showed that this clone contained an 8-kb Sal I fragment, harboring the entire mannosidase gene. Thefragment was further subcloned in pBluescript. The ORF iscomposed of 2,523 nucleotides and codes for a protein of 840amino acids (aa), with a calculated molecular mass of 94 kDaand a predicted pI of 4.87. A potential ribosome-binding site, AAGAG, was located 63 bp upstream from the start codon,GTG. An AACCGGTT motif was found at position  115; thesame motif was present in two copies at the promoter region of the endomannanase-encoding gene of   T. fusca  (sequence datafor the promoter region of the endomannanase of   T. fusca  YX was obtained from The Institute for Genomic Research web-site [http://www.tigr.org]). FIG. 1. Induction of ManB on different carbon sources. Zymo-grams stained with MU  Man show that   -mannosidase of   T. fusca TM51 is induced only by a mannan-containing substrate. Carbonsources were glucose (lane 1), MN300 cellulose (lane 2), birch wood xylan (lane3) and LBG (lane 4). The right part of the gel demonstratesthe identity of mannanases produced by  T. fusca  ATCC 27730 T (lanea) and the J9 transformant of   S. lividans  (lane b).1946 BE´KI ET AL. A  PPL  . E NVIRON . M ICROBIOL  .  FIG. 2. Alignment of the amino acid sequences of    -mannosidases from  T. fusca  (CAD33708),  C. fimi  (AAD42775),  X. fastidiosa (NP_298136.1),  S. coelicolor   (NP_630333), and  T. maritima  (NP_229424). Identical and similar residues are indicated on black and greybackgrounds, respectively. Dashed lines indicate a sugar binding domain (a), an immunoglobulin-like  -sandwich domain (b), and a TIM barreldomain (c). Asterisks indicate the putative acid base (443) and nucleophile (530) Glu residues of the catalytic center of ManB.1947  Southern blot analysis clearly showed that  manB  is presentin one copy in the  T. fusca  genome (data not presented). Domain analysis of ManB.  The N-terminal part of ManBcontained no signal peptide sequence characteristic of extra-cellular enzymes. Computer-assisted homology analyses usingthe National Library of Medicine Retrieval System (http: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and the BLAST algorithm to scanGenBank and other databases indicated that ManB is a mod-ular protein. It contains an N-terminal sugar binding domain(aa 79 to 157) with a jelly roll fold, an immunoglobulin-like  -sandwich domain (aa 208 to 312), and a TIM barrel domain(aa 329 to 483). At the C terminus of the protein there is adomain of unknown function (aa 671 to 816), which has alsobeen identified in Man2A of   Cellulomonas fimi .Two glutamate residues have been identified in the catalyticsite of family 2 GHs; the identity of Glu 519 as a nucleophilepartner was confirmed experimentally in the Man2A protein(44). In ManB the predicted nucleophile is Glu 530, whereasthe acid base catalyst is Glu 443. ManB was found to show highsimilarities to   -mannosidases grouped into family 2 of theGHs (16). This family contains enzymes with  -galactosidase,  -mannosidase, and   -glucuronidase activities. Among themembers of the GH family 2, ManB showed the highest overallsimilarity (53%) with  Cellulomonas fimi  Man2A and the puta-tive   -mannosidases from  Streptomyces coelicolor   (54%) (Fig.2). The similarity values were 34, 32, 31, 31, and 29% with  -mannosidases from  Thermotoga maritima  (36),  Xylella fastid-iosa  (42), bovine (14), mouse (10), and human (4), respectively. A phylogenetic tree based on the full amino acid sequence of these enzymes was constructed by the neighbor-joining method(Fig. 3.). Among the GH family 2 enzymes, ManB clusteredtogether in a phylogenetic group with   -mannosidases fromeubacteria and was clearly separated from mannanases of mammalian srcin. As can be seen from the topology of thetree, ManB is most closely related to Man2 of   C. fimi . This isnot surprising, as these two species are the closest relatives within this group of organisms and their plant cell wall-degrad-ing enzyme systems share notable similarities. Production and purification of the ManB enzyme.  S. lividans clone TK24 harboring  manB  was grown in saccharose-contain-ing medium. Due to the lack of enzyme secretion, no signifi-cant extracellular mannosidase activity was observed. The spe-cific activity of CFE was in the range of 0.015 U mg  1 . CFE was purified by anion-exchange chromatography on a Mono-Qcolumn and was further purified by gel chromatography withFPLC on a Superose-12 column. The specific mannosidaseactivity of this purified extract increased to 5.6 U of proteinmg  1 . The mannosidase-positive band resolved by SDS-PAGEanalysis was perfectly clear, confirming the high purity of theenzyme preparation (Fig. 4). The molecular mass of ManB asdetermined by SDS-PAGE was 94.5 kDa, approaching thededuced theoretical value of 94.0 kDa calculated from aminoacid composition. pH and temperature optima.  The pH and temperature op-tima of the enzyme produced in  S. lividans  were 7.17 and 53°C,respectively (Fig. 5). The thermal stability of ManB was rela-tively low, as 50% of the enzyme activity was destroyed after 10min of incubation at 60°C and the half-life of its activity was30 h at 40°C. However, this enzyme is still more heat tolerant FIG. 3. Phylogenetic relationships between ManB of   T. fusca  and aset of GH family 2 enzymes, including  -mannosidases of   X. fastidiosa , T. maritima ,  C. fimi ,  Mus musculus ,  Homo sapiens ,  Bos taurus , and  Drosophila melanogaster  , respectively.FIG. 4. Purification of   -mannosidase (ManB) as demonstrated bySDS-PAGE. A silver-stained gel is shown on the left. Lanes: 1, broad-range marker (Sigma); 2, purified ManB eluted from Superose-12column; 3, partially purified mannosidase eluted from Mono-Q col-umn; 4, crude enzyme preparation. Zymograms demonstrating theactivity of the same enzyme fractions using MU  Man as substrate areon the right. Lanes: 5, broad-range marker (Sigma); 6, purified ManBeluted from Superose-12 column; 7, partially purified mannosidaseeluted from Mono-Q column; 8, crude enzyme preparation. Molecularmasses are shown at right (in kilodaltons)1948 BE´KI ET AL. A  PPL  . E NVIRON . M ICROBIOL  .
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