Carbon Sequestrate through Incorporate Rice Straw

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Carbon Sequestrate through Incorporate Rice Straw
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  230 International Journal of Environment  3(4): 230-237, 2014 ISSN: 2077-4508 Corresponding Author : Abou-El-Hassan S., Central Lab of Organic Agriculture, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt. E-mail:   saad0777@yahoo.com   Carbon Sequestrate through Incorporate Rice Straw and Microorganisms into Soil for Eggplant Production 1 Abou-El-Hassan S., 2 M.A.A. Abdrabbo, 2 F.A. Hashem, 2 A.A. Farag, 2 M.A. Abul-Soud   and 2 S.H. Ahmed 1 Central Lab of Organic Agriculture, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt.   2 Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt    ABSTRACT Agricultural greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes are complex and heterogeneous, the management of recycle agricultural residues offers promising possibilities for mitigation. Firing the rice straw presented a main source of CO 2  emission of agricultural activities in Egypt. The study aimed to investigate the effect of applying rice straw into soil with or without rice straw decomposing fungi (RSDF) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) under 50 and 100% of recommended NPK on sequestrating CO 2 into soil and eggplant  production. Field experiment was conducted at experimental Site of Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt during 2013 and 2014 seasons. A randomized complete  block design was used with three replications. RSDF were used as one fungal strain of Trichoderma viride. PGPR were used as mixture of  Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillium brasilense, Bacillus megaterium and   Bacillus circulans . The obtained results showed that growth characteristics, mineral composition and yield component of eggplant cultivar Black Balady were significantly improved by applying 100% mineral fertilizers with rice straw plus PGPR with or without RSDF. Using 50% mineral fertilizers with rice straw plus RSDF and PGPR gave good yield with no significant differences comparing with 100% mineral fertilizers without rice straw treatment (control). This work shows that incorporation of rice straw into soil with decomposing fungi and  plant growth promoting rhizobacteria led to improve the production of eggplant, as well as reduced the amount of mineral fertilizers and avoided one of the most serious environmental air pollution (Black Cloud), caused by  burning rice straw annually.  Key words:   Sequestrate CO 2 , Rice straw management, Microorganisms, Trichoderma viride , Plant growth  promoting rizobacteria (PGPR), Eggplant.   Introduction Agricultural lands occupy about 8.6 million faddans (faddan = 4200 m 2 ) in Egypt, GHG Emission/ Agricultural Sector producing about 52.18 million tons CO 2 (Nakhla et al.,  2013) while 1 – 1.5 million faddans or about 22% of the cultivated area in Egypt during the summer season take in place of rice cultivation. The average of rice straw biomass yearly is around 3-4 million tons (Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, 2013), more than 50% of the rice straw residues, which are produced annually by farmers, are burnt in the field as a practical means of disposal. This allows farmers to clear and cultivate land early (within some 1-2 weeks after harvest) for sowing clover, which is the following major crop. The opportunities available for the use of residues in increasing farm income and value added to the national income have not generally been appreciated. The rice straw burning has resulted in a considerable loss of value to farmers and created extensive air pollution (viz. “black cloud”) that affects wide areas of the Nile delta and even Cairo. Improved agricultural management can reduce net GHG emissions, often affecting more than one GHG. The effectiveness of these practices depends on factors such as climate, soil type, and farming system. Agriculture releases to the atmosphere significant amounts of CO 2 , CH 4  and N 2 O (Cole et al.,  1997; IPCC 2001; Paustian et al.,  2004). Carbon dioxide is released largely from microbial decay or burning of plant litter and soil organic matter (Janzen 2004; Smith 2004b). Incorporating rice straw back into the soil is an alternative to burning, albeit an unpopular one with farmers. Its advantage is that it builds up organic matter in the soil as well as returning the nutrients contained in the rice straw back to the soil (Singh, 2001). However, it has been shown that the incorporation of rice straw contributes to significant levels of methane which enter the atmosphere and therefore contributes to greenhouse gas emissions (Wu et al.,  2012). Singh and Singh (2001) noted that burning causes a loss of nutrients and organic matter. Not only is rice straw the major organic material available to rice farmers but a considerable amount of the macro-nutrients, namely nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as well as important micro-nutrients  231  Int. j. Environ. 3(4): 230-237, 2014   like sulfur and silicon are contained in the rice straw (Dobermann and Fairhurst, 2002). The problem of agricultural wastes in Egypt became very obvious especially after the harvest of summer crops. Egyptian farmers get rid of the most these wastes by burning. Burning not only is considered an economic loss but also has harmful effects on the environment, i.e. emission of gases to the air and reducing the microbial activities in the soil. Therefore, utilization of agriculture wastes in any other environmentally friendly way is very important (Abou Hussein and Sawan, 2010). The decomposition of crop stalks biomass in the soil improved the soil fertility by supplying organic matter, plant nutrients and improving the soil texture (Yu and Song, 2003; Abdulla, 2007; Dai et al.,  2010). As well as soil microbial structure and population. (Glinwood et al.,  2011 and Hou et al.,  2012). Decomposition of rice straw is responsibility of many type of microorganisms, i.e. bacteria and fungi (Sirisena and Manamendra 1995; Kausar et al.,  2010). Fungi, i.e. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Chyptoga, Mucor sp. the main decomposer agents that can breakdown the rice straw (Nandi et al.,  2000). Fungal inoculate can accelerate the decomposition of rice straw. Trichoderma sp. is the best indigenous fungi in the decomposition process of rice straw (Irfan  et al.,  2010). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are naturally occurring soil bacteria that aggressively colonize plant roots and benefit plants by providing growth promotion. Inoculation of crop plants with certain strains of PGPR at an early stage of development can improve biomass production through direct effects on root and shoot growth. Inoculation of vegetables with PGPR may result in multiple effects as seen in the enhancement of seed germination, stand health, plant vigor, nutrients content of plant tissues, early bloom and chlorophyll content (Joseph et al.,  2007). PGPR influenced the growth, yield, and increase supply with different nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, iron and copper, produce plant hormones, enhance other beneficial bacteria or fungi (Saharan and Nehra, 2011). Eggplant ( Solanumm melongena var. esculenta L) is one of the important vegetable crops grown in the summer season of Egypt. The total cultivated area in Egypt was about 108 thousand feddans, producing about 1193 thousand tons on annual basis with an average of 11.079 tons/feddan (Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, 2013). Eggplant fruits contain a considerable amount of carbohydrates(6.4%), protein (1.3%) and fat (0.3%).They are also a rich source of potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron (Zenia and Halina, 2008). This work aimed mainly to offer a new strategy for management the rice straw for sequestrating CO 2 into soil through microorganisms as mitigation procedure of CO 2  emission and a good agriculture practices, to improve the production of eggplant, and avoid the serious of environmental air pollution (Black Cloud), caused  by burning rice straw annually. Materials and Methods The field experiment was carried out during the two growing summer seasons of 2013 and 2014 at Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agriculture Research Center, Egypt to investigate the effect of applying rice straw into soil with or without rice straw decomposing fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on eggplant production. Eggplant ( Solanumm melongena var. esculenta L ) seedlings (cultivar Black Balady) were planted in the field on 24 and 20 of February in the first and second seasons, respectively. The experimental trial was conducted in clay soil using drip irrigation system. Emitter discharge rate was 4 l/hr, the distance between emitters was 0.5 m. Physical and chemical properties of the experimental soil were analyzed before cultivation according to FAO (1980) in Table (1). Table 1: Physical and chemical analyses of the experimental soil.   Clay % Silt % Sand % Texture pH EC dS/m Cations meq/l Anions meq/l Ca ++  Mg ++  K  +  Na +  Co 3- HCO 3- Cl - SO 4= 67.60 18.56 13.84 Clay 7.65 1.33 2.58 0.94 1.82 1.94 - 1.92 2.38 3.25 The soil of the experiment was ploughed and divided into ridges; each plot contained three ridges 0.80 m width and 5 m length. The space between plants was 0.50 m on one side of ridge. Two ton/feddan (0.5 kg/m 2 ) of chopped rice straw (2 – 10mm) were incorporated into experiment soil during soil preparation except control treatment. Two different types of machines were used for cutting rice straw into different sizes. The first machine designed to chop rice straw between (10-15 cm) and the machine capacity was one ton/h. The second machine equipped with hammer mill drum and fixed knife, the machine capacity was 250kg / h, chopped rice straw size after grinding between (2mm -10mm). The chopped rice straw was incorporated into soil on the depth 10 – 15 cm. The main chemical analyses of rice straw are shown in Table (2). Incorporation rice straw into soil was applied two weeks before transplanting. The recommended dose of NPK as mineral fertilizers (MF) were applied according to Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (2009) as follows: 140kg N/fed as 680kg ammonium sulphate (20.5% N); 45kg P 2 O 5 /fed as 300kg calcium super phosphate (15.5%P 2 O 5 ) and 48kg K  2 O/fed as 100 kg potassium sulphate (48% K  2 O). Calcium super phosphate was added as one dose during soil preparation, whereas ammonium sulphate and  232  Int. j. Environ. 3(4): 230-237, 2014    potassium sulphate were added at three equal portions, during soil preparation, after 21 and 45 days from transplanting. Half of the above mentioned quantities (70 kg N/ Fed., 22.5 P 2 O 5 /fed and 24 K  2 O/fed) of mineral fertilizers were applied at the same times with 50% NPK treatments. Table 2: Chemical composition of the rice straw   DM (%) Ash (%) O.C (%) C/N Ratio  pH 1:5  N P K (%) 92.42 17.56 31.16 67.73 6.46 0.48 0.056 1.53 All microorganisms (pure local strains) were kindly provided by the Microbiology Dept. Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center. Trichoderma viride as rice straw decomposing fungi (RSDF) was supplemented to the soil by using liquid culture at a rate of 10 L/feddan (1ml contains 10 7 cell) after rice straw incorporation and irrigation directly. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were used as mixture of  Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillium brasilense  (nitrogen fixing bacteria),  Bacillus megaterium  (phosphate dissolving bacteria) and  Bacillus circulans  (potassium releasing bacteria). PGPR were supplemented to the soil surface beside plants after 2 and 4 weeks from transplanting by using liquid cultures at a rate of 20 ml/plant (1ml contains 10 8 cell) according to Mashhoor et al.  (2002) after diluted by water without Chlorine at 1 : 20 rate.  No manure, organic fertilizers or compost were applied in the experimental soil to avoid any interrupted effects. The Experimental Treatments 1)   Recommended NPK as mineral fertilizers without rice straw (100% MF as a control treatment). 2)   100% MF + rice straw (100% MF + RS). 3)   100% MF + rice straw + rice straw decomposing fungi(100% MF + RS + RSDF). 4)   100% MF + rice straw + plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (100% MF + RS + PGPR). 5)   100% MF + rice straw + rice straw decomposing fungi + plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (100% MF + RS + RSDF + PGPR). 6)   50% MF + RS 7)   50% MF + RS + RSDF 8)   50% MF + RS + PGPR 9)   50% MF + RS + RSDF + PGPR The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design, with three replicates for each treatment. After 60 days from transplanting, three plants per replicate were randomly chosen to measure plant height, stem diameter (under the first bottom leaf directly), number of leaves/plant, chlorophyll reading in the fourth upper leaf by using Minolta Chlorophyll Meter Spad 501. Total nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium  percentage were determined in the dry matter of fourth upper leaf according to Cottenie et al.  (1982). Total nitrogen was determined by Kjeldahl method according to the procedure described by FAO (1980). Phosphorus  percentage was determined using spectrophotometer according to Watanabe and Olsen (1965). Potassium  percentage was determined spectrometrically using Phillips Unicum Atomic Absorption Spectrometer as described by Chapman and Pratt (1961). Fresh and dry shoot weight was measured at harvesting. Early yield (recorded during the first two harvests) and total yield for each plot were recorded after each harvesting accumulatively and were collected per meter square. The saved nutrient of rice straw is calculated as following:  Nutrient save Kg /tone rice straw = Nutrient content % x 10 Data of the two seasons were statistically analyzed by the analysis of variance using one way ANOVA according to Snedecor and Cochran (1980) using SAS software, version 2004.   Comparison of treatment means was done for significance at 0.05 level using Tukey test. Results and Discussion The environmental impact assessment of rice straw and microorganisms incorporation The obtained data of Table (3) presented that the saved nutrients through rice straw and microorganisms incorporation, the revealed data indicated that rice straw offer moderate amounts of K 15.3 Kg/ton of rice straw followed by N 4.8 Kg/tone and minority amount of P 0.56 Kg/ton while presented huge amounts of organic carbon 311 Kg per each ton of rice straw. The organic matter contents of experimental soil  plots showed that all rice straw treatments increase of organic soil matter content slightly compared to control treatment. These results were true in both seasons. Otherwise, any advantage could be achieved through rice straw and microorganisms incorporation is better than losing the essential nutrients, organic matter and increasing CO 2  emission that resulted from rice straw burning.  233  Int. j. Environ. 3(4): 230-237, 2014   The real advantage is storing organic carbon of rice straw into soil by huge amounts. Needless to mention that, each faddan under the treatments of rice straw application receive about 0.6 ton of organic carbon (2 tons of rice straw/fad.). Carbon sequestration in soils implies transferring atmospheric CO 2  into long-lived  pools and storing it securely so it is not immediately reemitted. Thus, soil carbon sequestration means increasing soil organic carbon and soil inorganic carbon stocks through judicious land use and recommended management  practices (Lal, 2004). Although soil carbon sequestration does not mean avoidance and reduction of the formation of greenhouse gases, it is considered as a significant mitigation strategy because of the soils’ potential to store large amounts of CO 2  at a global scale. Carbon sequestration is a promising mitigation option, it has to  be emphasized that it is difficult to quantify the corresponding mitigation potential, due to the difficulties in measurement, data uncertainties and gaps. The slight increasing of organic matter content in the applied soil from first to second season and also among the control and treated soils as presented in Table (3) gave a good indicator for increasing soil fertility and sustainable agriculture production as a result of rice straw incorporation. Increasing organic soil matter content played a vital role in crop production (Abul-Soud et al.,  2014). Otherwise, the use of lower dose of recommended NPK had positive environmental impacts through mitigating the agricultural soil and fertilizers processing emission, save the natural sources (soil, water and energy), decrease the pollution and reduce the cost. Table 3:  The environmental impact assessment of rice straw and microorganisms incorporation into soil. Treatments  Nutrient save Kg / ton Organic matter %  N P K O.C 1 st season 2 nd season 100% MF (control) 0.00 b 0.00 b 0.00 b 0.00 b 1.236 b 1.238 b 100% MF + RS 4.80 a 0.56 a 15.30 a 311.60 a 1.349 a 1.362 a 100% MF + RS + RSDF 4.80 a 0.56 a 15.30 a 311.60 a 1.350 a 1.363 a 100% MF + RS + PGPR 4.80 a 0.56 a 15.30 a 311.60 a 1.352 a 1.364 a 100% MF + RS + RSDF + PGPR 4.80 a 0.56 a 15.30 a 311.60 a 1.351 a 1.363 a 50% MF + RS 4.80 a 0.56 a 15.30 a 311.60 a 1.351 a 1.363 a 50% MF + RS + RSDF 4.80 a 0.56 a 15.30 a 311.60 a 1.351 a 1.363 a 50% MF + RS + PGPR 4.80 a 0.56 a 15.30 a 311.60 a 1.350 a 1.365 a 50% MF + RS + RSDF + PGPR 4.80 a 0.56 a 15.30 a 311.60 a 1.349 a 1.361 a  Means followed in same column by similar letters are not statistically different at 0.05 level according to Tukey test. MF = Mineral fertilizer RS = Rice straw RSDF = Rice straw decomposing fungi PGPR = Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria The effect of rice straw and microorganisms incorporation on eggplant vegetative growth Vegetative characteristics of eggplant plants as affected by the different treatments are presented in Table (4 and 5). Data showed that the treatments of 100% MF plus rice straw plus plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with or without rice straw decomposing fungi (RSDF) significantly increased vegetative growth of eggplant plants, these treatments gave the highest values of vegetative characteristics expressed as fresh and dry shoot weight, leaves number, plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll reading compared to the other tested treatments. The treatments of 100% MF plus rice straw with or without RSDF increased of fresh and dry shoot weight compared to 100% NPK without rice straw treatment, while there were no significant differences among these treatments in other vegetative characteristics. On the other hand, the treatments of 50% MF plus rice straw plus PGPR with or without RSDF decreased of fresh, dry shoot weight and plant height compared to 100% MF without rice straw treatment, while there were no significant differences among these treatments in other Table 4:  Effect of rice straw and microorganisms incorporation on fresh, dry weight and leaves number of eggplant plants during 2013 and 2014 seasons. Treatments Fresh weight g/plant Dry weight g/plant Leaves No/plant 1 st  season 2 nd  season 1 st  season 2 nd  season 1 st  season 2 nd  season 100% MF (control) 950 d 958 d 266c 270c 32.33 c 33.33bc 100% MF + RS 1033 c 1050 c 284b 287b 32.67 c 33.43bc 100% MF + RS + RSDF 1087 c 1092 c 289b 291b 33.00 c 34.33b 100% MF + RS + PGPR 1225 b 1247 b 320a 326a 37.67 b 39.33a 100% MF + RS + RSDF + PGPR 1300 a 1310 a 333a 336a 40.67 a 41.67a 50% MF + RS 710 f 717 f 193f 194f 25.67 d 26.33d 50% MF + RS + RSDF 740 f 750 f 189f 192f 26.33 d 27.33d 50% MF + RS + PGPR 830 e 853 e 214e 220e 30.33 c 30.67c 50% MF + RS + RSDF + PGPR 883 e 897 e 236d 240d 30.67 c 31.33bc  Means followed in same column by similar letters are not statistically different at 0.05 level according to Tukey test. MF = Mineral fertilizer RS = Rice straw RSDF = Rice straw decomposing fungi PGPR = Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria  234  Int. j. Environ. 3(4): 230-237, 2014   vegetative characteristics. Whereas, 50% MF plus rice straw with or without RSDF gave the lowest vegetative characteristics during the two growing seasons. The positive effect of 100% MF plus rice straw plus PGPR with or without RSDF treatments might be due to the decomposition of rice straw in the soil, that improved the soil fertility by supplying organic matter and improving the soil texture (Yu and Song, 2003; Abdulla, 2007). This effect also might be due to the beneficial effects of PGPR, that help in increasing nitrogen fixation in rhizosphere, increase supply of other nutrients and produce plant hormones (Saharan and Nehra 2011). All these led to improve the plant growth. These results are in agreement with those obtained by Joseph et al.  (2007) on chickpea, Glinwood et al.  (2011), Hou et al.  (2012) on hot pepper and Latha  et al.  (2014)on eggplant. Table 5:  Effect of rice straw and microorganisms incorporation   on plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll of eggplant plants during 2013 and 2014 seasons. Treatments Plant height cm Stem diameter mm Chlorophyll reading spad 1 st  season 2 nd  season 1 st  season 2 nd  season 1 st  season 2 nd  season 100% MF (control) 77.00 b 79.33 cd 13.00 b 13.78 cd 41.30 bc 42.29 bc 100% MF + RS 76.67 b 79.67 cd 13.33 b 14.12 c 42.00 b 42.99 b 100% MF + RS + RSDF 78.67 b 82.33 bc 13.33 b 14.39 bc 42.23 b 43.22 b 100% MF + RS + PGPR 84.67 a 88.33 ab 16.00 a 16.54 ab 44.13 a 45.12 a 100% MF + RS + RSDF + PGPR 90.00 a 92.67 a 16.33 a 16.89 a 44.60 a 45.59 a 50% MF + RS 56.67 d 57.33 f 8.33 c 8.62 f 37.07 d 38.05 d 50% MF + RS + RSDF 59.33 d 61.33 f 8.67 c 9.98 ef 38.03 d 38.82 d 50% MF + RS + PGPR 68.67 c 72.00 e 11.50 b 11.89 de 40.13 c 40.62 c 50% MF + RS + RSDF + PGPR 70.67 c 74.00 de 11.67 b 12.32 cd 40.8 bc 41.287 c  Means followed in same column by similar letters are not statistically different at 0.05 level according to Tukey test. MF = Mineral fertilizer RS = Rice straw RSDF = Rice straw decomposing fungi PGPR = Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria The effect of rice straw and microorganisms incorporation on the leaves N, P and K content of eggplant The effect of treatments on the nutritional status in eggplant plants is shown in Table (6). The obtained results in both seasons revealed that application of 100% MF plus rice straw plus PGPR with or without RSDF treatments gave the highest concentrations of N, P and K in eggplant leaves. On the other hand, the lowest N, P and K percentage of eggplant leaves were obtained by 50% MF plus rice straw with or without RSDF treatments. While, the treatments of 50% MF plus rice straw plus PGPR with or without RSDF were moderated, as these treatments decreased concentration of N in leaves compared to 100% MF without rice straw treatment, whereas there were no significant differences among these treatments in concentrations of P and K in eggplant leaves. These findings may be due to addition of rice straw as organic residues, the decomposition of this organic material improves physical, chemical and biological properties of soil, it also improves the nutrient cycling and availability to the plants (Yu and Song, 2003; Abdulla, 2007; Dai et al.,  2010). In addition, the  presence of PGPR can increase nitrogen fixation, phosphate dissolving and potassium releasing (Saharan and  Nehra 2011). All these increases of nutrient uptake and promote the nutritional status of eggplant plants. These results are in harmony with those obtained by Shehata et al.  (2010) and Shahein et al.  (2013) working on celery and lettuce respectively they reported that the biofertilizer increased NPK content in the leaves. Table 6:  Effect of rice straw and microorganisms incorporation on NPK content of eggplant leaves during 2013 and 2014 seasons. Treatments  N P K % 1 st  season 2 nd  season 1 st  season 2 nd  season 1 st  season 2 nd  season 100% MF (control) 4.039 b 4.192 b 0.352 bc 0.358 bc 3.577 cd 3.623 d 100% MF + RS 4.087 b 4.219 b 0.370 bc 0.380 bc 3.690 bc 3.828 bc 100% MF + RS + RSDF 4.102 b 4.252 b 0.403 b 0.415 b 3.827 b 3.969 b 100% MF + RS + PGPR 4.557 a 4.736 a 0.577 a 0.599 a 4.630 a 4.840 a 100% MF + RS + RSDF + PGPR 4.667 a 4.851 a 0.607 a 0.628 a 4.747 a 4.962 a 50% MF + RS 2.677 d 2.713 e 0.230 d 0.236 d 2.350 f 2.438 f 50% MF + RS + RSDF 2.867 d 2.905 d 0.247 d 0.254 d 2.557 e 2.653 e 50% MF + RS + PGPR 3.660 c 3.877 c 0.327 c 0.342 c 3.380 d 3.592 d 50% MF + RS + RSDF + PGPR 3.807 c 4.004 c 0.343 c 0.360 bc 3.523 cd 3.710 cd  Means followed in same column by similar letters are not statistically different at 0.05 level according to Tukey test. MF = mineral fertilizer RS = rice straw RSDF = rice straw decomposing fungi PGPR = plant growth promoting rhizobacteria The effect of rice straw and microorganisms incorporation on eggplant yield Data in Table (7) show yield properties (early, total yield and fruits number) of eggplant as affected by the different treatments. In both seasons the results cleared that the highest early and total yield were obtained by 100% MF plus rice straw plus PGPR with or without RSDF treatments compared to the other tested treatments. In addition, the treatments of 100% MF plus rice straw with or without RSDF came in the second order with no
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