California Archaeology Fluted and Basally Thinned Concave-Base Points of Obsidian in the Borden Collection from Inyo County, Alta California: Age and Significance

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California Archaeology Fluted and Basally Thinned Concave-Base Points of Obsidian in the Borden Collection from Inyo County, Alta California: Age and Significance
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  Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found athttp://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=ycal20 California Archaeology ISSN: 1947-461X (Print) 1947-4628 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ycal20 Fluted and Basally Thinned Concave-Base Pointsof Obsidian in the Borden Collection from InyoCounty, Alta California: Age and Significance Michael J. Moratto, Alan P. Garfinkel, Jon M. Erlandson, Alexander K. Rogers,Michael F. Rondeau, Jeffrey Rosenthal, Craig Skinner, Tim Carpenter &Robert M. Yohe To cite this article:  Michael J. Moratto, Alan P. Garfinkel, Jon M. Erlandson, Alexander K. Rogers,Michael F. Rondeau, Jeffrey Rosenthal, Craig Skinner, Tim Carpenter & Robert M. Yohe (2018)Fluted and Basally Thinned Concave-Base Points of Obsidian in the Borden Collection fromInyo County, Alta California: Age and Significance, California Archaeology, 10:1, 27-60, DOI:10.1080/1947461X.2017.1391476 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/1947461X.2017.1391476 Published online: 15 May 2018.Submit your article to this journal View related articles View Crossmark data  Fluted and Basally Thinned Concave-BasePoints of Obsidian in the BordenCollection from Inyo County, AltaCalifornia: Age and Signi fi cance Michael J. Moratto  Archaeological consultant, 2008 Goldenrod Court, Westlake Village, CA91361 ( moratto1850@gmail.com )  Alan P. Gar fi nkel UltraSystems Environmental, Inc., 16431 Scienti fi c Way, Irvine, CA 92618( avram1952@yahoo.com ) Jon M. Erlandson  Museum of Natural and Cultural History, 1224 University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (  jerland@uoregon.edu )  Alexander K. Rogers  Maturango Museum, 100 E. Las Flores Avenue, Ridgecrest, CA 93555( matmus1@maturango.org  ) Michael F. Rondeau Rondeau Archaeological, 251 Rockmont Circle, Sacramento, CA 95835( mikerondo@yahoo.com ) Jeffrey Rosenthal Far Western Anthropological Research Group, Inc., 2727 Del Rio Place,Davis, CA 95618 (  jeff@farwestern.com ) Craig Skinner  Northwest Research Obsidian Studies Laboratory, 5060 SW Philomath Boulevard, No. 331, Corvallis, OR 97333 ( cskinner@obsidianlab.com ) Tim Carpenter  Archaeometrics, Inc., 414 Buena Terra, Woodland, CA 95695 ( tim@archaeometrics.com ) Robert M. Yohe Department of Anthropology, California State University, 9001 StockdaleHighway, Bakers fi eld, CA 93311 ( ryohe@csub.edu ) California Archaeology , Volume 10, Number 1, June 2018, pp. 27 – 60.  27 Copyright © 2018 Society for California Archaeology. All rights reserved   Abstract  This article describes, classi fi es, and provides the calculated ages of 14 basally thinned and  fl uted points of obsidian in the Borden collection fromRose Valley in southern Inyo County, California. With the exception of one itemof Fish Springs obsidian, the specimens are all made of glass from geologicsubsources in the Coso Volcanic Field. Typologically, the fragmentary andreworked artifacts appear to represent Clovis, or perhaps Clovis-derived,concave-base lanceolate points. Obsidian hydration measurements permit agecalculations that range between approximately 13,793 and 11,308 calendaryears ago. The calculated ages of the Borden artifacts are consistent with theirdiscovery on landforms associated with Younger Dryas and very early Holocenewetlands. Our research results also suggest that Clovis technology may havepersisted longer in California than it did in the southeastern, central, andsouthwestern United States.  Resumen  Este artículo describe, clasi fi ca, y proportiona las edades calculadasde 14 puntos de obsidiana, adelgazados a la base y canelados, en la colección deBorden, de Rose Valley, en el condado de Inyo del sur. Exceptuando un artículode la obsidiana de Fish Springs, los especímenes son todos de vidrio de sub-fuentes geológicas en el Campo Volcánico Coso. Tipológicamente, los artefactosfragmentados y reelaborados parecen representar los puntos lanceolados y debase cóncava de la tradición Clovis, o quizás derivados de Clovis. Las medicionesdehidratacióndeobsidiana permiten cálculosdeedadquetiendenavariardesdeaproximadamente 13.793 a 11.308 años civiles. Las edades calculadas de losartefactos de Borden son consistentes con el descubrimiento de ellos sobreformas de relieve asociadas con campos humedales del Dryas Más Jóvenes y Holoceno muy temprano. Nuestros resultados de investigación también sugie-ren que la tecnología de Clovis puede haber persistido más tiempo en Californiaque en los Estados Unidos sudeste, central, y suroeste.  Although scholars have known for decades  that Clovis points occur inancient archaeological contexts throughout much of North America, theprecise age range of the  “ Clovis culture ”  (cf. Stanford and Bradley  2012) isstill being debated. The widely held view that Clovis assemblages date fromca. 11,500 to 10,900  14 C yr B.P. (Haynes 2005) has been challenged by Waters and Stafford (2007), who argued that the Clovis era was relatively  brief, from ca. 11,050 to 10,800  14 C yr B.P. This  “ short chronology  ”  hasbeen criticized and the longer one defended (e.g., Haynes et al. 2007; 28  Michael J. Moratto et al.  Madsen 2015; Prasciunas and Surovell 2015). Moreover, evidence for the per- sistence of Clovis well beyond ca. 10,800  14 C yr B.P. has been reported fromseveral North American regions, including the Far West (Beck and Jones2009, 2010, 2013; Bedwell 1973; Madsen and Rhode 1990; Moratto et al. 2017). Nor is the issue purely temporal, since typology also must be takeninto account, i.e., which artifacts are Clovis, or Clovis-like, or derived fromClovis, and what is the age of each (cf. Miller et al. 2013).In this article, we describe and classify 14  fl uted or basally thinned, concave-base, bifacial points (F/BTC-BBPs) of obsidian in the Borden collection fromRose Valley in Inyo County, California. These specimens are among the nearly 600 Clovis and Clovis-like points known to have been discovered in the state(Dillon 2002; Erlandson et al. 2007; Justice 2002; Moratto 1984, 2000; Rondeau 2015; Rondeau et al. 2007). Unfortunately, most of these are surface  fi nds and almost none of them came from buried deposits that couldbe radiocarbon dated. A second aim of our article, therefore, is to calculatethe ages of the 14 F/BTC-BBPs based on geologic source-speci fi c, temperature-adjusted obsidian hydration rates. Our intent here is to shed light on the age of these, and perhaps typologically similar,  fl aked stone tools in eastern California.Finally, a third goal is to discuss and assess the importance of these distinctiveartifacts in the region ’ s early prehistory. With respect to nomenclature, key terms employed in this article are de fi ned below. The Borden Collection Rose Valley in southern Inyo County (Figure 1) was the focus of intensive archae-ological survey and collection during the 1960s and early 1970s by Ferris Bordenand his wife Helen, under the auspices of the Archaeological Survey Association of Southern California (ASASC). The Borden collection of about 3,700 artifacts,including many Paleoindian items (Rondeau 2009a, 2009b; Stephens and Yohe 2012), vanished and was feared lost after the ASASC and the Bordens partedcompany. Fortunately, the collection resurfaced in 2008 when a relative of Mr.Borden ’ s offered it to the Maturango Museum in Ridgecrest, California, where itis now held under Accession Number 08.29 (Rogers 2010a, 2010b, 2016). Given Rose Valley  ’ s close proximity to the Coso Volcanic Field (CVF)(Figure 1), it is not surprising that the Borden collection includes many items made of Coso obsidian. A map of the various survey locations is on fi le at the Maturango Museum, and individual artifacts are labeled with geo-graphic data, such as township, range, section, and sometimes quarter-section. But there are no accompanying notes to reveal exact provenience Fluted and Basally Thinned Concave-Base Points of Obsidian  29  or to describe  fi eld methods. Some pertinent information — e.g., that debitagewas not usually recovered — may be gleaned from Borden ’ s (1971) report. In that work, he grouped stone tools into four categories based on the extent of chemical and physical weathering due to atmospheric exposure and eoliansandblasting, and proposed a time period for each category: 500 – 2,000 B.P.(Category I) to 9,000 – 11,000 B.P. (Category IV). Bettinger (1974) calledattention to basic problems with this approach, which has since been replacedby other chronologic methods (e.g., Colman and Pierce 2001; Wagner 1995). Figure 1.  Location of the Borden site relative to the Coso Volcanic Field, mountain ranges, watercourses, and lake basins east of the southern Sierra Nevada (map by Paul Brandy). 30  Michael J. Moratto et al.
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