Bk Preparingeffectiveteachers 738 | English As A Second Or Foreign Language | Second Language Acquisition

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  Preparing Teachers of English Language Learners:Practical Applicationsof the PreK–12 TESOLProfessional Standards Diane Staehr FennerandNatalie Kuhlman   Application of Standards by Domain    77 Chapter 6Domain 1: Language This chapter ocuses on the frst domain o the TESOL P–12 Proessional Teaching Standards,Language, and its application to program development, NCATE/CAEP recognition, and professional development. We begin with a description of the domain and then focus on the application o each o the two standards ound in this domain or the three audiences andpurposes o this book: program development, NCATE/CAEP recognition, and proessional development. It should be noted that the examples are suggestions and are not intended to beprescriptive in nature. We encourage those who use the TESOL P–12 Professional TeachingStandards to adapt them to their own contexts so that they will be the most useful. The Structure of Domain 1: Language Table 1 lists the two standards o this domain along with the perormance indicators that are used to exemplify and support them. Overview of Domain 1 This domain defnes the content that is at the core o being a teacher who works with ELLs, aswell as the role o the teacher in applying this knowledge o English to oster ELLs’ acquisition of the language in the classroom. It is important for ESL teachers and content area teachers 1  who instruct ELLs to have a conscious knowledge o the components o language as a system (Standard 1.a). Domain 1 therefore addresses the fundamental knowledge a teacher in this feld should have to eectively engage in the task o addressing the language needs o ELLs sothat they can acquire grade-level content such as mathematics, science, and English language arts. This knowledge of English goes beyond having a grasp of English grammatical rules tohaving an understanding of language as a system of rules—and beyond. This fundamental knowledge includes awareness and understanding o the separate components o the language system, such as phonology, morphology, semantics, and pragmatics or discourse. As part of  this domain, teachers are also expected to be aware o how language changes and how userso language have access to dierent varieties o language; teachers must also be aware o how various languages are similar or different. 1 Content area teachers are non-ESL or bilingual education teachers who instruct students in subjects such as mathematics, English language arts, social studies, and science.  78   TESOL Professional Standards for Teacher Preparation: Practical Applications Teachers also need to be uent in social and academic English so that they can serve asrole models for students. This need for uency is especially apparent as numerous nonnativespeakers of English teach ELLs in the United States as well as other countries. TESOL recognizes and supports these nonnative speakers in ESL/EFL teaching positions by, among other things, dedicating an interest section to them so they can share resources and support. There are also native speakers o English who may use a nonacademic or other variety o  English. However, all teachers who work with ELLs, including native as well as nonnativespeakers of English, need to be uent in academic English, which is needed for students to besuccessful in school and society. Not only do ESL teachers need to be highly knowledgeable about the content they areteaching, the English language, they also must be able to apply theories and research on theprocess o acquiring English in order to support ELLs as these students learn academic English and content simultaneously (Standard 1.b). And although the goal for ELLs is second language acquisition (SLA), ESL teachers who are teaching younger students also need to know about rst language acquisition and development. Teachers should not expect more of studentslearning English than of their native-English-speaking (NES) peers. For example, it is notuncommon for NES 5-year-olds to generalize the past tense. For example, they may say, “Igoed,” before they realize that there are irregular verbs, too. For teachers in secondary schools, on the other hand, it is useul to be amiliar with the kinds o changes that occur as students Table 1. Organization of Domain 1: Language Domain 1: Candidatesknow,understand,andusethemajortheoriesandresearchrelatedtothestructureandacquisitionoflanguagetohelpEnglishlanguagelearners(ELLs)developlanguageandliteracyandachieveinthecontentareas. 1.a. Language as a System Candidatesdemonstrateunderstandingoflanguageasasystem,includingphonology,morphology,syntax,pragmaticsandsemantics,andsupportELLsastheyacquireEnglishlanguageandliteracyinordertoachieveinthecontentareas. 1.a.1. Demonstrateknowledgeofthecomponentsoflanguageandlanguageasanintegrativesystem. 1.a.2. Applyknowledgeof phonology  (thesoundsystem), morphology  (thestructureofwords), syntax  (phraseandsentencestructure), semantics (word/sentencemeaning),and pragmatics (theeffectofcontextonlanguage)tohelpELLsdeveloporal,reading,andwritingskills(includingmechanics)inEnglish. 1.a.3. DemonstrateknowledgeofrhetoricalanddiscoursestructuresasappliedtoESOLlearning. 1.a.4. DemonstrateprociencyinEnglishandserveasagoodlanguagemodelforELLs. 1.b. Language Acquisitionand Development CandidatesunderstandandapplytheoriesandresearchinlanguageacquisitionanddevelopmenttosupporttheirELLs’Englishlanguageandliteracylearningandcontent-areaachievement. 1.b.1. DemonstrateunderstandingofcurrentandhistoricaltheoriesandresearchinlanguageacquisitionasappliedtoELLs. 1.b.2 UnderstandtheoriesandresearchthatexplainhowL1[rstlanguage]literacydevelopmentdiffersfromL2[secondlanguage]literacydevelopment. 1.b.3. RecognizetheimportanceofELLs’L1sandlanguagevarietiesandbuildontheseskillsasafoundationforlearningEnglish. 1.b.4. Understandandapplyknowledgeofsociocultural,psychological,andpoliticalvariablestofacilitatetheprocessoflearningEnglish. 1.b.5. UnderstandandapplyknowledgeoftheroleofindividuallearnervariablesintheprocessoflearningEnglish.
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