Between Public and Private: The History and Challenges of Women's Rights in Iran

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Between Public and Private: The History and Challenges of Women's Rights in Iran
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  ! #$%&$'$' !"#$%&'(#)%"  "#$% $&' (' %) *$+' ), %#'-' .)/%&$01.%1/2 1*$2'-3 "#) 1- %#' 4&$/1$/ ()*$/5 $/0 (#'&' 0)'- -#' ,1% 1/ %#' ()&603 "#$% 1- %#' /$%7&' ), #'& 8)('&3 "#) &'8&'-'/%- #'& $/0 #)(3 9#&)72# (#$% +1/0 ), *'01$5 8)61%1.-5 $/0 .76%7&' $&' (' 0'81.%1/2 #'&3 :  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H'<)67%1)/ ), :QRQ5 %() *)0'6- #$<' *'&2'0 %) ,)&* %#' -%'&')%@81.$6 10'$6 ()*$/A J61 I#$&1$%15 $/ 4&$/1$/ -).1)6)21-%5 .)/.'8%7$61D'0 >7-61* ()*'/ $- S$%1*$5 %#' 0$72#%'& ), >7#$**'0C K%#' *)0'6 0$72#%'&5 (1,'5 *)%#'&5 *161%$/% $/0 &'-8)/-1E6' 8$&%1.18$/% 1/ #'& -).1'%@AL O  4/ #1- (&1%1/2-5 I#$&1$%1 .$66- 78)/ %#' *)0'6- ), S$%1*$ $- ('66 $- %#' *)&' *161%$/% T'1/$E5 %#' -1-%'& ), U7-$@/5 %) '/.)7&$2' 4&$/1$/ ()*'/ %) E' $.%1<1-%- 1/<)6<'0 1/ %#' 8)61%1.$6 $/0 -).1$6 61,' ), %#'1& .)**7/1%1'-A V  W6'&1. J@$%)66$# J66$*$# >7&%$D$ >7%$##'&1 87% ,)&%# $/ $6%'&/$%1<' *)0'6 ), 4&$/1$/ ,'*1/1/1%@5 $/0 $&27'- %#$% ()*'/ $/0 *'/ E@ /$%7&' #$<' .'&%$1/ 7/1X7' K8'.761$&1%1'-L %#$% '/%1%6' %#'* %) K-1*16$&5L E7% /)% K'X7$65L &12#%-A Y  4/ #1- <1'(5 %#' 10'$6 ()*$/G- /$%7&$6 &)6' ($- 1/ %#' #)7-'#)60 $- $ (1,' $/0 *)%#'&5 $/0 %#' X7'-% ,)& 'X7$6 &12#%- 6'0 E@ %#' "'-% ($- 1/ ,$.% &'-8)/-1E6' ,)& *7.# ), %#' 1  Kendra Heideman et al., Women in the Iranian Election Campaign and Protest  ,  Middle East Program,   Occasional Paper Series , 2  Rochelle Terman, "The Piety of Public Participation: The Revolutionary Muslim Woman in the Islamic Republic of Iran," Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions  11.3-4 (2010): pp. 289-90. 3  Terman, p. 299. 4  Ali Shariati, "Our Expectations of the Muslim Woman,"  Iran Chamber Society , Web. 5  Allamah Murtaza Mutahheri, Woman and Her Rights in Islam . Accra: Islamic Seminary Publications, 1982, p. 5.  7/#$881/'-- 'B8'&1'/.'0 E@ ()*'/ 1/ %#' *)0'&/ ()&60A Z  4/ %#' 4-6$*1. H'<)67%1)/5 07' %) %#' #12# &$%'- ), 8$&%1.18$%1)/ E@ ()*'/ $/0 %#'1& &)6'- 1/ %#' 4&$/=4&$X "$& %#$% ,)66)('05 J@$%)66$# H7#)66$# [#)*'1/1 *'&2'0 %#'-' %() *)0'6- *'&2'0 1/%) )/'C %#' 10'$6 >7-61* (1,' $/0 *)%#'& (#) $6-) 1- $.%1<' 1/ 8&)*)%1/2 4-6$* 1/ %#' .)**7/1%@A 9#' W)/-%1%7%1)/ ), %#' 4-6$*1. H'87E61. $/0 /$)   )& .7-%)*$&@ 6$(- '*E'00'0 1/ %#' 6'2$6 .)0' #12#612#% %#1- .)/%&$01.%1)/ 1/ %#' 6'2$6 10'/%1%@ ), 4&$/1$/ ()*'/A "#16' %#' W)/-%1%7%1)/ 1/ $&%1.6'- :Q $/0 MP -%$%' %#$% $66 .1%1D'/- $&' 'X7$6 $/0 1/<'12#- %#' -%$%' %) 0'<'6)8 ()*'/G- 8)%'/%1$65 R  %#1- 1- .1&.7*-.&1E'0 E@ %#' -%1876$%1)/ %#$% &12#%- *7-% .)/,)&* %) 4-6$*1. 6$(5 (#1.# 1- ),%'/ 7-'0 $- %#' E$-1- ,)& 01-.&1*1/$%1)/ $2$1/-% ()*'/A \$(- 0'&1<'0 ,&)* /$)   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`MPP] %#' ab F'<'6)8*'/% c&)2&$*G- U7*$/ F'<'6)8*'/% H'8)&% &$/+'0 4&$/ -612#%6@ $E)<' %#' a/1%'0 I%$%'- 1/ %'&*- ), 2'/0'& 'X7$61%@ 1/ 0'<'6)8*'/% ^d'/0'& F1-8$&1%@ 4/0'B $- $ 8'&.'/%$2' ), U7*$/ F'<'6)8*'/% 4/0'B_A Q  9#'-' $.#1'<'*'/%- #$<' $6-) .)*' $E)7% (1%# <'&@ 61%%6' $--1-%$/.' ,&)* "'-%'&/ 2)<'&/*'/%-e 1/0''05 $--1-%$/.' .$/ ),%'/%1*'- -'% ()*'/G- 2&)78- E$.+C (#'/ %#' d')&2' "A f7-# $0*1/1-%&$%1)/ $//)7/.'0 $/ )8'/ 8)61.@ ), ,7/01/2 bdg- %#$% '/.)7&$2'0 &'21*' .#$/2' 1/ 4&$/5 *$/@ ()*'/G- )&2$/1D$%1)/- ('&' -#7% 0)(/ E@ %#' 4&$/1$/ 2)<'&/*'/% 7/0'& -7-81.1)/ ), #$<1/2 &'.'1<'0 -7.# ,7/0-A :P  I1*16$&6@5 %#' d&''/ >)<'*'/% ), MPPQ5 .)**)/6@ 8)&%&$@'0 E@ "'-%'&/ *'01$ $- E'1/2 -'.76$& $/0 8&)=aI5 -)72#% %) 01-%$/.' 1%-'6, ,&)* "'-%'&/ -788)&%'&- (#)-' 6  Mutahheri, p. 10. 7  Zahra Nejadbahram, "Women and Employment." Women, Power and Politics in 21st Century Iran , Ed. Tara Povey and Elaheh Rostami-Povey, Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2012, p. 80. 8  Shahra Razavi, "Islamic Politics, Human Rights and Women's Claims for Equality in Iran," Third World Quarterly  27.7 (2006): p. 1226. 9  Tara Povey, "The Iranian Women's Movement in Its Regional and International Context," Women, Power and Politics in 21st Century Iran , Ed. Tara Povey and Elaheh Rostami-Povey, Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2012, p. 173. 10  Ibid, p. 176.  ( #$%&$'$' 1/<)6<'*'/% .)760 #$<' 0))*'0 1%- 8&)2&'--A ::  9#' ()*'/G- *)<'*'/% 1- $/ 1/0'8'/0'/% '/%1%@ %#$% 1- -8'.1,1. %) 4&$/G- 8)61%1.$6 .)/%'B% $/0 ),%'/ 7%161D'- 4-6$*1. I#1G1%' %;1%:#+   ^&'1/%'&8&'%$%1)/_ %) $886@ 1/%'&/$%1)/$6 -%$/0$&0- ), .1<16 $/0 8)61%1.$6 &12#%- %) %#' 0)*'-%1. 6'2$6 -8#'&'A :M  J/)%#'& *1-.)/.'8%1)/ ), %#' -%$%7- ), ()*'/ 1/ 4&$/ 1- %#$% $/@ 6$.+ ), &12#%- 1- 07' %) %#' 01.%$%'- ), I#1G1%' 4-6$* 1%-'6,A "#16' 2'/0'& #$- 6)/2 E''/ $ -%$2' ,)& %#' 8'&,)&*$/.' ), &'6121)/ 1/ 4&$/1$/ 8)61%1.-5 :O  *$/@ ), %#' 2&'$%'-% &'-%&1.%1)/- ), ()*'/G- &12#%- 1/ 4&$/ #$<' .)*' $- *)<'- $2$1/-% 0'*).&$.@ $/0 .1<16 &12#%- 1/ 2'/'&$65 (1%# /) &','&'/.' %) %#' I#$&1G$ )& %#' h7&G$/A ")*'/ $/0 )%#'& 01-$0<$/%$2'0 2&)78- #$<' E''/ K%$&2'%'0 $- *$&+'&- ), 10'/%1%@5L :V  $/0 $0<$/.'- 1/ %#'1& &12#%- $&' ),%'/ <1'('0 $- 0'%&1*'/%$6 %) %#' 8&)?'.% ), %#' 4-6$*1. H'87E61. $- $ %#').&$.@ 2710'0 E@ <03#=#160 )#>%:  ^27$&01$/-#18 ), %#' ?7&1-8&70'/%_A 9#7- %#' -%$%' -%&7.%7&'- %#$% 8&'<'/% 8$&1%@ E'%(''/ ()*'/ $/0 *'/ ^)& *1/)&1%@ 2&)78- $/0 %#' *$?)&1%@_ K#$<' *)&' %) 0) (1%# $ 6$.+ ), 0'*).&$%1. -%$%' -%&7.%7&' %#$/ (1%# $/@ 1/%&1/-1. 1/.)*8$%1E161%@ E'%(''/ &'6121)7- %&$01%1)/ $/0 *)0'&/ 0'*).&$%1. 8&1/.186'-AL :Y  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 .'/%7&@ $/0 .)/%1/71/2 %#&)72# %#' 8&'-'/% 0$@A 4% %&$.'- %#' 0'<'6)8*'/% ), %#' ()*'/G- *)<'*'/% ,)66)(1/2 %#' 4-6$*1. H'<)67%1)/ $/0 %#' 2$1/- $/0 -'%E$.+- 'B8'&1'/.'0 7/0'& 01,,'&'/% 8&'-10'/%1$6 $0*1/1-%&$%1)/-A f@ 'B$*1/1/2 %#' .#$66'/2'- ,$.'0 E@ 4&$/1$/ ()*'/ 1/ %#' *)0'&/ 4-6$*1. H'87E61. 11  Povey, p. 178. 12  Homa Hoodfar and Shadi Sadr, "Islamic Politics and WomenÕs Quest for Gender Equality in Iran," Third World Quarterly  31.6 (2010): p. 892. 13  Azam Torab,  Performing Islam : Gender and Ritual in Iran,  Leiden: Brill, 2007. 14  Hoodfar and Sadr, p. 886. 15  Ibid. 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 )#21.  1, /)% +0 ;/$0  '/<1&)/*'/% 1/ (#1.# ()*'/ $&' )7%8$.1/2 *'/ 1/ -)*' $&'$-A *+, .#/#'0 %1 2%3," 4$,56787 ?:0 (1#10 /*+0$ @0A# B:#: (01 ./1 1. 1$#*().$5 7$#* )$.5 # +0C0*+0*1, 1$#+%1%.*#3 (.2%01= 1. # 5.+0$*, %*+0C0*+0*1 *#1%.*6(1#10 D%1: '/$.C0 #( %1( 5.+03EEE 4.50* D0$0 (00* #( 90= 1. 1:%( *#1%.*#3%(1 C$.;021 *.1 .*3= F02#/(0 .) 1:0 (/CC.(0+ 3%*9#G0( F01D00* 5.+0$*%1= #*+ D.50*H( C/F3%2  C#$1%2%C#1%.* #*+ 0+/2#1%.*, F/1 #3(. F02#/(0 .) 1:0 D%+03= :03+ <%0D 1:#1 D.50* 1$#%*0+ 1:0 *0I1  G0*0$#1%.* .) 2%1%A0*( #( 5.1:0$(E JK  J6%#)72# %#' &'12/- ), %#' h$?$& $/0 c$#6$<1 -#$#- -#$&' 61%%6' 1/ .)**)/ (1%# %#'1& -7..'--)&-5 )/' .)**)/ .#$66'/2' ($- %#' 0'-1&' %) *)0'&/1D' 4&$/ $/0 -1*76%$/')7-6@ $88'$-' .)/-'&<$%1<' 2&)78-A >7.# 61+' %#' &76'&- ), %#' 4-6$*1. H'87E61.5 %#' -#$#- ), 4&$/ ,)7/0 %#$% %#'1& 1*8)-1%1)/ ), 8)61.1'- $,,'.%1/2 ()*'/ ($- %#' *)-% .)/%'/%1)7-6@ .#$66'/2'0 E@ ,)&.'- ,&)* *$/@ -10'-5 ()*'/G- )&2$/1D$%1)/- $/0 .)/-'&<$%1<' .6'&1.- $61+'A g/' ), %#' '$&61'-% 0).7*'/%'0 1/-%$/.'- ), )&2$/1D'0 ,'*$6' 8$&%1.18$%1)/ 1/ 8)61%1.- .$*' 1/ :]QP 07&1/2 %#' 9)E$..) c&)%'-%A b$-'& $6=F1/ I#$# h$?$& /'2)%1$%'0 $ %)E$..) .)/.'--1)/ (1%# f&1%1-# .)*8$/1'- %#$% 2$<' %#'* $ ,766 *)/)8)6@ )<'& %#' 8&)07.%1)/5 -$6'5 $/0 'B8)&% ), 4&$/1$/ %)E$..)A 4/ &'-8)/-'5 .6'&1.- $/0 )%#'& )88)-1%1)/ ,)&.'- )&2$/1D'0 $ 8&)%'-% $2$1/-% %#' .)/.'--1)/ %#$% 6'0 %) 1%- &'8'$6 1/ :]QMA ")*'/ 8$&%1.18$%'0 1/ %#' -%&''% 0'*)/-%&$%1)/- $2$1/-% %#' %)E$..) .)/.'--1)/5 %#'1& ,1&-% &'.)&0'0 1/<)6<'*'/% 1/ 87E61. 0'*)/-%&$%1)/- 1/ 4&$/A :R  9#'@ $6-) E)@.)%%'0 -*)+1/2 (1%#1/ %#'1& )(/ ,$*161'-5 $/0 '<'/ %#' -#$#G- (1<'- &'8)&%'06@ &',7-'0 %) 6'% #1* -*)+' $/0 E&)+' #1- %)E$..) 818'-A :]  ")*'/ $6-) 86$@'0 $/ 1*8)&%$/% &)6' 1/ %#' 8&'=)16 '.)/)*@ ), 4&$/A f'.$7-' %#' 4&$/1$/ '.)/)*@ &'-%'0 )/ $2&1.76%7&' $/0 -*$66=-.$6' 8&)07.%1)/ E',)&' %#' 01-.)<'&@ ), )16 1/ :QP]5 ()*'/ ('&' -12/1,1.$/% .)/%&1E7%)&- %) #)7-'#)60 1/.)*'- $- %#'@ ()&+'0 $6)/2-10' %#'1& #7-E$/0- )/ ,$&*- $/0 .&'$%'0 #$/0*$0' 2))0- (1%#1/ %#'1& #)*'-A :Q  ")*'/ $6-) 8$&%1.18$%'0 1/ %#' :QPZ W)/-%1%7%1)/$6 16  Terman, p. 293. 17  Rostami-Povey, p. 18. 18  Ibid, p 17. 19  Ibid.
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