An Introduction to Sociolinguistics

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An Introduction to Sociolinguistics
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  An Introduction to Sociolinguistics  Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics The books included in this series provide comprehensive accounts of some of themost central and most rapidly developing areas of research in linguistics. Intendedprimarily for introductory and post-introductory students, they include exercises,discussion points, and suggestions for further reading.1.Liliane Haegeman Introduction to Government and Binding Theory  (Second Edition)2.Andrew Spencer Morphological Theory 3.Helen Goodluck Language Acquisition 4.Ronald Wardhaugh Introduction to Sociolinguistics  (Fifth Edition)5.Martin Atkinson Children’s Syntax 6.Diane Blakemore Understanding Utterances 7.Michael Kenstowicz Phonology in Generative Grammar 8.Deborah Schiffrin Approaches to Discourse 9.John Clark and Colin Yallop An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology (Second Edition)10.Natsuko Tsujimura An Introduction to Japanese Linguistics 11.Robert D. Borsley Modern Phrase Structure Grammar 12.Nigel Fabb Linguistics and Literature 13.Irene Heim and Angelika Semantics in Generative Grammar Kratzer14.Liliane Haegeman and English Grammar: A Generative  Jacqueline Guéron Perspective 15.Stephen Crain and Diane An Introduction to Linguistic Theory Lillo-Martin and Language Acquisition 16.Joan Bresnan Lexical-Functional Syntax 17.Barbara A. Fennell A History of English: A SociolinguisticApproach 18.Henry Rogers Writing Systems: A Linguistic Approach 19.Benjamin W. Fortson IV Indo-European Language and Culture:An Introduction 20.Liliane Haegeman Thinking Syntactically: A Guide toArgumentation and Analysis  An Introduction to Sociolinguistics FIFTH EDITIONRonald Wardhaugh  © 1986, 1992, 1998, 2002, 2006 by Ronald WardhaughBLACKWELL PUBLISHING350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, AustraliaThe right of Ronald Wardhaugh to be identified as the Author of this Work has beenasserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright,Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.First published 1986 by Basil Blackwell LtdSecond edition (1992), third edition (1998), and fourth edition (2002) published byBlackwell Publishers LtdFifth edition published 2006 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd12006 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Wardhaugh, Ronald.An introduction to sociolinguistics / Ronald Wardhaugh. — 5th ed.p. cm. — (Blackwell textbooks in linguistics ; 4)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-3559-7 (pbk. : alk. paper)ISBN-10: 1-4051-3559-X (pbk. : alk. paper)1. Sociolinguistics.I. Title.II.Series.P40.W272006306.44—dc222005019312A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.Set in 10/12pt Sabonby Graphicraft Limited, Hong KongPrinted and bound in the United Kingdomby TJ International Ltd, Padstow, CornwallThe publisher’s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate asustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processedusing acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisherensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmentalaccreditation standards.For further information onBlackwell Publishing, visit our website:www.blackwellpublishing.com  Contents PrefaceviiAcknowledgmentsviii 1Introduction 1Knowledge of Language – Variation – Scientific Investigation –Language and Society – Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language – Methodological Concerns – Overview – FurtherReading Part ILanguages and Communities 23 2Languages, Dialects, and Varieties 25Language and Dialect – Regional Dialects – Social Dialects –Styles, Registers, and Beliefs – Further Reading 3Pidgins and Creoles 58Lingua Francas – Definitions – Distribution and Characteristics –Origins – From Pidgin to Creole – Further Reading 4Codes 88Diglossia – Bilingualism and Multilingualism – Code-Switching –Further Reading 5Speech Communities 119Definitions – Intersecting Communities – Networks andRepertoires – Further Reading Part IIInherent Variety 133 6Language Variation 135Regional Variation – The Linguistic Variable – Linguistic andSocial Variation – Data Collection and Analysis – FurtherReading 7Some Findings and Issues 162An Early Study – New York City – Norwich and Reading –A Variety of Studies – Belfast – Controversies – Further Reading
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