Agwu M. E., Ikpefan, O. A., Atuma O. & Achugamonu, B. U. Conceptual Review of the Effects of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behaviour; International Review of Social Sciences, Vol. 2 Issue.11, pp. 502-518, November, 2014. Available at

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Over the years, advertising has become a regular strategy for positioning products, services and ideas in the market place. Yet an over dependence on advertising could be counter-productive and disdainful for the targeted audience who often regard
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     ISSN 2309-0081 Agwu, Ikpefan, Atuma & Achugamonu (2014) 502 I www.irss.academyirmbr.com November 2014 I nternational   R  eview of S ocial S ciences   V ol. 2 I ssue.11   R S S   Conceptual Review of the Effects of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behaviour   AGWU M. EDWIN Adjunct Lecturer and External dissertation supervisor for Global MBA students at Man-chester Business School, United Kingdom AND Senior Lecturer in Strategic Management and Marketing, School of Business, Covenant University, Ogun State, Nigeria: Emails: edwinagwu@yahoo.co.uk , edwin.agwu@covenantuniversity.edu.ng  IKPEFAN, OCHEI AILEMEN Associate Professor, Banking and Finance, School of Business, Covenant University, Ogun State, Nigeria: Email: ochei_ikpefan@yahoo.co.uk , Ochei.ikpefan@covenantuniversity.edu.ng  ATUMA OKPARA   Lecturer and Coordinator, MBA Programmes, School of Management Sciences,  Na-tional Open University of Nigeria, Victoria Island, Lagos Nigeria. Email: atumaokpara@yahoo.com  ACHUGAMONU, BEDE, U Lecturer, Banking and Finance, School of Business, Covenant University, Ogun State, Nigeria. Email:  bedeachuga@gmail.com, uzoma.achugamonu@covenantuniversity.edu.ng  Abstract Over the years, advertising has become a regular strategy for positioning products, services and ideas in the market place. Yet an over dependence on advertising could be counter-productive and disdainful for the targeted audience who often regard excessive advertising as information overload. In spite of the growing criticisms about the effectiveness or otherwise of advertising, its relevance in contemporary marketing management is not in doubt. This exploratory study was structured to critically to examine the usefulness of advertising in persuading consumers to adopt a new or an existing product, with a special focus on Nigeria as a developing economy. The aim primarily was to examine the effect of advertising on consumer buying behaviour within the Nigerian context. The study focused on revealing the relationship either positively or negatively, between advertising and consumer buying behaviour. It equally postulates what effect continuous advertisement of product has on consumer buying behaviour. The findings indicate that advertisements that are properly packaged will surely persuade consumers to experiment the particular  product, and that such advertisement should be executed long enough to generate such curiosity that will motivate consumers to buy. The study recommends a proper understanding of various segments of customers and their buying behaviours. And the organisation as well as others, must endeavour to understand the buying behaviour of its customers in order to identify the - what, why, where, when and how - they buy; otherwise, an unstructured advertising campaign will not yield positive results. Key Word  : Consumers, Behavior, Advertisement, Products, Attitude, Buying. Introduction   In recent years, a bevy of marketing techniques have fought for global domination, with many boasting a lucrative combination of well packaged advertising tools, communications features, websites, and ever     ISSN 2309-0081 Agwu, Ikpefan, Atuma & Achugamonu (2014) 503 I www.irss.academyirmbr.com November 2014 I nternational   R  eview of S ocial S ciences   V ol. 2 I ssue.11   R S S      presence in the print and electronic media. Unfortunately, many consumers do not seem to have any definable views on advertising. They enjoy entertaining commercials, especially if they do not interrupt their favorite programmes. Once in a while, they acclaim the creativity evident in some print advertisement (Kotler and Armstrong 2010). Advertising makes mass marketing possible by making prospective customer aware of the availability and unique quality of specific goods and services. However, Marketing Managers in production companies today faces a more complex and challenging environment than their predecessors. They are saddled with Value Added Tax (VAT), unrealistic exchange rates, decreasing consumer  purchasing power, rationalization of consumer purchases and ever increasing gap between the haves and have-nots this quickening pace of change, the rise in diversity and the increase in complexity are creating new challenges in marketing particularly in the advertising field (Ogechie 1997; Kenneth and Donald 2010). Getting tired of all adverting is very easy because we are so media saturated every day (Agwu 2012); this is  because we all have and listen to televisions, radios, read various magazines, newspapers, outdoor signages, direct mails and now new innovation by websites and text messages. Some of these have to filter out to function because it serves a purpose for both the consumers and the providers. Without advertising the world would probably narrow or very different. A good advertisement persuades the customer to the final  purchase and keeps them motivated to do a certain action (Kenneth and Donald 2010). So advertising has an important role in today's businesses. The advertising not only persuades the customer to buy only but also gives them the options that can be considered when they go to purchase to distinguish the products among many. So when the customer goes to purchase any thing he will once think about it that there is a certain product with certain features (Agwu 2013; Ikpefan, et al., 2014) .  Advertising has been such a persuasive and intrusive socio-economic force in Nigeria, as in other countries, that neither manufacturer nor consumers can ignore it (Bardi 2010; Agwu 2012). As a communication medium, advertising invades our streets, offices, villages and homes, pushing in messages about various  products and services, ideas, persons (dead or alive) and institutions through various media outlet (Ozoh 1998). It does this intensively and persistently that it is only our natural abilities to selectively perceive and recall information that saves us from the thralldom of what communication experts have described as “information overload” (Nwosu, 1990).  Terence (2007), defined advertising as a paid mediated form of communication from an identifiable source, designed to persuade the receiver to take some action, now or in the future. The basic purpose of advertising is to communicate the news to the user or the customer that there is something new in the market. But when we go into the depth; advertising serves the source to persuade or attract customer about the product to do a certain action which is usually to purchase a product (Kenneth and Donald 2010  ). Advertising serves a good purpose for business nowadays (Onunkwo 1997) because of numbers of goods and services produced every day. Advertising helps in telling the consumer about any new product or service or any new promotion on the existing product and service. Advertising helps to describe the features and characteristics of product or service in the visual form so that the customer can understand it easily. So advertising has become important for business nowadays (Bardi 2010) . It is in the light of the above discussion that this study intends to critically examine the usefulness of advertising in persuading consumers to adopt new or existing products. This study intends further to investigate the important role advertising plays towards increasing sales volume with a view to drawing the attention of others manufacturers to immense contribution of advertising to the realization of sales objectives.   Review of Related Literature Kenneth and Donald (2010) stressed that advertising is an important component of marketing strategy .  The aim is to promote business and communicate information they intend to send to the intended audience,     ISSN 2309-0081 Agwu, Ikpefan, Atuma & Achugamonu (2014) 504 I www.irss.academyirmbr.com November 2014 I nternational   R  eview of S ocial S ciences   V ol. 2 I ssue.11   R S S     especially with the aim of increasing sales or making the audience aware of the products or services  produced by the organization. Advertising helps to form the customers‟ first impressions on ones business; it can on ly attract new customers if only it‟s done properly Ogbodoh 1990). The history of advertising, as cited in Baker (1996) observed that it is often assumed that advertising functions are of recent srcin. It is generally held that the assumption has no ground for existence, as nothing exists of which we are ignorant, and that advertisements are of comparatively modern srcin. According to Okigbo (1997), advertising is so much a part of our life that it is usually taken for granted. It is an inevitable complement to modern mass media even when we take it for granted. Duckworth (1995) cited in Tony (2006) stated that advertising, and how it works has become something of a holy grail for advertising analysts. Making it known that in order to make it work effectiv ely, advertising has to impact on people‟s attitudes t owards the brand in order to create the desired behavior. In order to differentiate brands from their competitors, the role of advertising is to give added value and secure consumer commitment towards the brand. This is the strongly persuasive view of advertising. Barnard and Ehrenberg (1998) argues that many advertisements do not embody overtly differentiating messages or values and those that do still do not have a significant impact on the way people think or feel about the brand. They further argue that there is a change in attitudes in the process of trying various brands. Equally, they argue that the attitudes held by customers to a brand are in fact somewhat similar to those held about a competitive brand by its customers (Tony, 2006). While Abernethy and Franke (1996), argues that the evidence on consumer attitudes towards advertising shows that consumer prefer advertising that helps in decision making, providing information that differentiates a brand from its competitor tends to increase commercial recall, comprehension and persuasion (Abernethy and Frank, (1996). Most advertising seeks to promote the sale of particular goods and services. In order to achieve these objectives, the advertising provides the potential or existing customer base with information about the  product or services. In the majority of instances, such advertising seeks to reinforce existing attitudes by explaining how the product is appropriate to potential users‟ existing need s or lifestyle (Tony, 2006). According to Li et al. (2002), public perceptions of advertising have been a subject of study for decades, and findings shows that consumers‟ attitudes towards advertising as an institution are usually more favorable. Many consumers recognize not only the negative societal effects of advertising, but also the  positive economic impact of the advertising industry (Osuagwu and Eniola, 1998; Li et al., 2002; Agwu 2012). Definitions of Advertising Advertising has been defined by various scholars in different forms. The Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON) writing in „ ’The Nigeria Code of Advertising Practice , (2005) defines advertising as a form of communication through media about products, services, or ideas, paid for by an identified sponsor. The above definition exposes the following that advertisement must be paid for by an identified sponsor and that the aim of advertising is to disseminate information and ideas about goods or services and to  persuade people to take action by patronizing the goods and services advertised. Daramola (2003), suggest that the objective of advertising is to induce immediate action, to create liking and preference for a product or organization, and to create awareness about a product or service. Some advertisements also seek to build a respected corporate identity for a company, product, and brand name or make all familiar to the public Agwu, 2102). According to Ogbechie (1997), advertising is the act of conveying the most persuasive  product or service message at the right time, in the right place, to the right person, at the lower cost. Its aim is to foster favorable attitudes to a product or service by presenting the advantages defined by product  positioning consumer benefits. Furthermore, Terence, (2007), define advertising as a paid, mediated form of communication from an identifiable source, designed to persuade the receiver to take some action, now or in the future. The word “paid”  in these definitions distinguished advertising from public relations that secures unpaid space or time in media due to the news value of the public relations content. The expression “mediated communication” is designed to distinguish advertising, which typ ically is conveyed via print and electronic media, from person-to-person forms of communication including personal selling and word of mouth. Finally the definition em  phasizes that advertising‟s purpose is to influence action, either presently or in the future (Terence, 2007). Many business firms as well as not-for-profit organizations have faith in     ISSN 2309-0081 Agwu, Ikpefan, Atuma & Achugamonu (2014) 505 I www.irss.academyirmbr.com November 2014 I nternational   R  eview of S ocial S ciences   V ol. 2 I ssue.11   R S S     advertising (Kenneth and Donald, 2010). In general, advertising is valued because it is recognized as  performing critical communication functions such as: informing; influencing, reminding and increasing salience, adding value and assisting other company efforts. Kotler (1997) in their submission defined advertising as any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor. While Ferrel (1991) saw advertising as a paid form of non-personal communication that is transmitted through mass media such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines, direct mail, public transport vehicles, bill boards, and outdoor displays. Summarily, advertising is paid for, it is a commercial transaction and it is that which distinguishes it from publicity. It is non-personal in the sense that advertising messages, visual, spoken, or written are directed at a mass audience, and not directly at the individual as in the case in personal selling. Advertising are identifiable with their sponsor or srcinator which is not always the case with publicity or propaganda. Objectives of Advertising  Ferrel, (1991) stressed that setting advertising objectives is the first step in developing an advertising  program. These objectives are usually based on past decisions about the target market, positioning, and marketing mix, which defines the job that advertising must do in the total marketing program (Kenneth and Donald, 2010). Nwosu, (1997) pointed out that some companies are reserved when it comes to investing in advertising mostly because of their expectations and incorrectly set objectives. They seek through advertising solutions as problems that can only be solved by adjusting the marketing plan or sometimes the entire strategy of the company. Besides advertising, the marketing mix is made by other 3 components Price, Product and Placement (Ozoh, 1994). When these elements are not aligned with the specific of the target market, advertising cannot help and an in vestment in communication activities wouldn‟t be justified. According to the marketing plan, the manager decides what problems of the company must advertising solve, what opportunities and strengths can be emphasized, what weaknesses and threats can be addressed (Williams, 1997) Zsai, et al., (2007) stressed that an advertising objective is a specific communication task to be accomplished with a specific target audience during a specific period of time. Advertising objectives, according to the authors can be classified by primary purpose as: a.    Informative advertising:  This is used to inform consumers about a new product or feature or to build  primary demand.  b.    Persuasive advertising:  This is used to build selective demand for a brand by persuading consumers that it offers the best quality for their money. c.   Comparison advertising:  This advertising compares one brand directly or indirectly to one or more other brands. d.    Reminder advertising: This is used to keep consumers thinking about a product. This form of advertising is more important for mature products. Before creating an advertising campaign to determine consumers to buy, they have to be informed and convinced by the benefits of the product. Before setting advertising objectives we should remember the tagline “Marketing sells, advertising tells!”   in order to set them correctly (Backhaus and van Doorn 2007). Achieving Advertising Objectives One continuing issue facing advertising is deciding how many times a person must be exposed to advertising before it has an impact (Kotler and Armstrong 2010). Most agree that a single exposure is not enough. Discovering the actual number has inspired a great deal of debate. Some argue it takes three exposures, others say as many as ten. The basic rule developed by Herbert Krugman 1965, states that it takes a minimum of three exposures for an adverting to be effective. Now many advertisers think three exposures are not enough to create an impression in the consumer‟s mind, primarily because of the amount     ISSN 2309-0081 Agwu, Ikpefan, Atuma & Achugamonu (2014) 506 I www.irss.academyirmbr.com November 2014 I nternational   R  eview of S ocial S ciences   V ol. 2 I ssue.11   R S S     of clutter that exists. Churchill (1995) stressed that seeking to discover the minimum number of exposures needed to be effective which is based on two concepts: a)   Effective frequency: These refer to the number of times a target audience must be exposed to a message to achieve a particular objective.  b)   Effective reach: This is the specific objective. Few exposures means that the advertiser will fail to attain its intended objectives on the other hand, too many exposures waste resources (Kenneth and Donald, 2010). Goals of advertising Advertising planning is to establish and clarify advertising goals which are derived from the firm‟s overall communication objectives. The following are advertising goals according to Kenneth and Donald (2010): Building Brand Image:  One of the most important advertising goals is building brand and corporate images. A strong brand creates brand equity. Brand equity is said to be a set of characteristics that makes a  brand different and better to both customers and businesses. These benefits can be enhanced when they combine effective for advertising with quality products. Higher levels of brand equity are distinct advantage as customers make purchase decision. Advertising is a critical component of building brand equity. Succe ssful brand processes two characteristics that is the top of the mind and the customers‟ top choice.  When customers are asked to identify brand that quickly comes to mind from a product category, one or two brands are nearly always mentioned. These names are always top of the mind brands. The term top choice suggests exactly what the term implies. This is the first on second pick when a customer reviews his or her evoked set of possible purchasing alternatives. Providing Information:  Apart from building brand recognition and equity, advertising serves other goals. Advertising is often used to provide information to both customers and business buyers. Information can help in purchasing process appears to be simple, which can entice customers to finalize the purchasing decision and travel to the store. For business-to-business situations, information from some advertising leads various members of the buying center to consider a particular company as they examine their options. Persuasion:  Advertising can convince customers that a particular brand is superior. Advertising can show customers the negative consequences of failing to use a particular brand. Chasing consumer attitudes and  persuading them to consider a new purchasing choice is a challenging task. Persuasion techniques are used more frequently in broadcasting media such as television and radio rather than in print. Supporting Marketing Effort:  Advertising can be used to support other marketing functions. Manufacturers use advertising to support trade and consumer promotions such as theme pack aging or combination offers. Encouraging Action:  Many firms set behavioral goals for advertising programs. A television commercial that encourage viewers to take action by dialing a toll-free number to make a quick purchase is an example. Infomercials and home shopping network programmed heavily rely on immediate purchasing responds. Action-oriented advertising is likely to be used in the business-to-business sector. When it is often the goal is to generate sales leads. Many business advertisements provide web addresses or telephone numbers that  buyers can use to request more information or more easily make a purchase. The 5 advertising goals of building image, providing information, being persuasive, supporting other marketing effects and encouraging action are not separate ideas. They work together in key ways. Image and information are part of persuasion. The key advertising management objective is to emphasize one goal without forgetting the others.
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