Advancement in conceptualizing cross-border daily mobility: The Benelux context in the European Union

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Advancement in conceptualizing cross-border daily mobility: The Benelux context in the European Union
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  EJTIR Issue 12(2), 2012 pp. 178-197 ISSN: 1567-7141 www.ejti.t!".tu#e$%t.&$  '#&*e"e&t i& +&*eptu$ii& +ss-/#e i$ !i$it: t3e /e&e$u +&tet i& t3e Eupe& &i& Philippe Gerber 1   +ESINSTE', ue"!u / se# & spe*i%i* *3*teisti*s % "!i$it, t3e *ss-!#e *""ute sttus sti$$ 3s s"e "!iuities, w3et3e i& $e$, ep3i*, e*&"i*  "e e&e$$ i& s*i$  *u$tu$ te"s. T3is ppe i"s t pi#i& t3eeti*$ #&*e"e&t t t3is spe*i%i* *ss-!#e "!i$it, espe*i$$ t3u3 t3e t&s%e %  t3eeti*$ "#e$ usi&  *ss-s*$e &$sis !se# & tw *"p$e"e&t *&*epts. T3e %ist *esp&#s t !#e *&%i"i& &# is "esue# t t3e "* $ee$, i&*$u#i& t3e e*&"i* #i%%ee&ti$s & !t3 si#es % t3e !#e. T3e se*&# *&*ept is *$$e# !#e t&s*e&#i& &# %*uses & t3e i&#ii#u$ $ee$. It is !se# & t3e ssess"e&t % t3e ps*3s*i$ !ies t3t " %#e s t3e #i$ p*ti*es % t3e !#e ise. T3is ep$t pp*3 is teste# wit3i& t3e Eupe& *&tet % /e&e$u. T3e esu$ts, $t3u3 t3e *&&t !e e&e$ise# #ue t  $*; % *"p!$e #t, %%e ese*3 pespe*ties. S %, t3e eiste&*e %  *ss-!#e *t*3"e&t e, teste# & t3e /e$i& *ss-!#e *""utes w;i& i& ue"!u, is  e$it % "&. Keywords:  /#e t&s*e&#i&, /#e *&%i"i&, /e&e$u, +t*3"e&t e, +ss-!#e #i$ "!i$it 1. Introduction 't  ti"e % e&e$ "!i$it, t3e wt3 % t3e %$ws % "tei$ &# i&t&i!$e ssets is %te& i"p$i*it$ e#e# s  pei$i& &# psitie s*i$ spe*t (&&, R"#ie, 2007). ' *"p$ete eiew % t3ese #iese &# &ew %"s % "!i$it, w3i*3 ";e up  &ew "u$ti#is*ip$i& p#i" **#i& t S3e$$e &#  (2006), is &t &e*ess 3ee, !ut it is &eet3e$ess !ius t3t i&te&ti&$ w;%*e %$ws e &e % t3e "i& spe*ts % t3ese e*e&t "!i$ities. S"e ut3s ee t3t t3ese i&te&ti&$ %$ws *& !e *$ssi%ie# i&t tw %"s t $$w  !ette u&#est&#i& % t3e "!i$it ptte&s % t3ese w;es (<&#3, 1999= ie#, 2008). >&e % t3ese tpes *esp&#s t (pe"&e&t  te"p) i&te&ti&$ "iti&s, w3i*3 i&#u*e  esi#e&ti$ t&s&ti&$ "e"e&t %"  p *u&t t & i&#usti$ise# stte i& **#&*e wit3 &u"eus &# *"p$e e*&"i* &# s*i$ %*ts su*3 s, t "e&ti& t3e "st %"us &es, t3e pus3?pu$$ "#e$s (i.e. ee, 1966)  t3e stu*tue % t3e 1  @, e&ue #e $ A&te, -4@64 Es*3-su-'$ette, T: B@52585855601, A: B@52585560, E: p3i$ippe.e!eC*eps.$u   EJTIR 12(2), 2012, pp. 178-197 De!e '#&*e"e&t i& +&*eptu$ii& +ss-/#e i$ !i$it: t3e /e&e$u +&tet i& t3e Eupe& &i& 179 w$# ";et (i.e. Ssse&, 1988). T3e se*&# &# $ess-;&w& %" peti&s t t3e %$ws % *ss-!#e *""utes, w3i*3 3e !ee& i&*esi& s3p$ i& Eupe: t3ee wee !ut 490,000 i& 19992000 &# 660,000 i& 20062007 i& t3e 15-"e"!e E, w3i*3 is  ise % 26 (<F, E"pii*, 2009). T3is ppe wi$$ %*us & t3t se*&# %" % i&te&ti&$ %$ws. I&#ee#, $t3u3 &u"eus witi&s #e$i& wit3 t3ese %$ws e !ei& pu!$is3e#, it is &e*ess t *"p$ete t3e t3eeti*$ *pus e&!$i& us t #isti&uis3 t3ese tw %"s % "!i$it %" t3e spti-te"p$ *&*ept % #i$ "!i$it. T3is *"!i&ti& % #i$ &# "!i$it ies ise t t3e &ti& % *ss-!#e *""utes, w3i*3 wi$$ !e #ee$pe# i& t3e %ist pt. It is &eet3e$ess $e# *$e t3t *ss-!#e *""uti& is !se# & !t3 "*e*&"i* &# ps*3s*i$ i&te*ti&s t3t # &t %*i$itte t3e e#i& s t3e *ss tw s*$es % &$sis (<e$$, 2011). T3e %"e peti&s t  Eupe& t&sei&$ s*$e &# suppses u&ee& e*&"i* pe%"&*es "& ei&s, #i%%ee&t *u$tu$ pp*3es t3t %te& 3i&#e i&teti& &# s*i-e*&"i* *3esi& #*te# ! t3e Eupe& +""issi&. T3e $tte s*$e % &$sis %*uses & t3e i&#ii#u$, i.e. &e pes& wit3 spe*i%i* s*i#e"p3i*, ps*3$i*$, s"!$i*$ &# i#e&tit %etues t3t e$te t t3e ete&t t w3i*3 t3e %ee$ t3e !e$& t t3ei e  *u&t % ii& (+3u*3"&, it&i, 1997). Ai&$$, t3e i&te*ti&s !etwee& t3ese &$ti*$ s*$es pi#e !t3 t3e *&#iti&s % eiste&*e &# t3e wt3 % t3e *ss-!#ei& p3e&"e&&, just s t3e "i3t !i& !ut its #w&%$$. I& t3e w#s, we s3$$ %*us i& t3is ppe & *ss-!#e w;es *""uti& t t3e /e&e$u i& #e t s3w t3t !#e-*ssi& is  p3e&"e&& t3t eGuies #i%%ee&ti$s &  "*e*&"i* s*$e i& #e t !e &ise# &# $st pe"&e&t$ w3i$e %*i$itti& i#e&tit-!se# *3esi& &  "i*-e*&"i* s*$e ( %ee$i& % !e$&i&...) !e*use % t3e #ee$p"e&t % #i%%ee&t ;i&#s % i&te*ti&s &# espe*i$$ t3e *tiities *ie# ut i& t3e *u&t % esi#e&*e &# !#. I& #e t &$se t3is p# (/e$, 2008), i& w3i*3 ppsite stteies &ee# t *eist (i.e. "*e*&"i* #i%%ee&ti$s esus t3e *ss-!#e %ee$i& % !e$&i&,  "i*e*&"i* #i%%ee&ti$), & ii&$ e#i& % t3e !#e is ie& i& #eti$ i& t3e se*&# pt % t3is ppe i& #e t $ #w& t3is *&*eptu$ pp*3, w3i*3 wi$$ !e *3e*;e# i&st e"pii*$ &# ep$t &$ses !se# & t3e /e&e$u %"ew; i& t3e $st pt. 2. From mobility to cross-border daily mobility: an overview T3e ius Eupe& i&stituti&s %te& e# t3e *ss-!#e $!u ";et s &e % t3e "j e$e"e&ts !ui$#i& up Eupe& s*i$ &# teiti$ *3esi&, pti*u$$ w3e& t3e pupse is t %*i$itte w;es "!i$it, !e it "iti&  *ss-!#e *""uti& (ie#, 2008). Het, t3e #e%i&iti&s spe*i%i& t3e *3*teisti*s % t3ese *ss-!#e $!u "!i$ities # &t ep$i& t3e *"p$eit % t3e e&sui& ju&es, w3i*3 "  " &t ";e t3t i&teti& esie. Dijse$ &# J&sse& (2000: 62) put %w#  #e%i&iti& *&tsti& t3e *ss-!#e $!u ";et wit3 t3e &ti&$ $!u ";et: t3e spe*i% t3t, i& t3e %ist *se, t3e %i"s &# w;es % &e *u&t e&te &t3e *u&ts $!u ";et. I& t3is se&se, t3e #ist&*e t t3e w;i& p$*e, t3e t3&  stte !u&#, 3i&#es t3e j! ";et. T3e *3*teisti*s $i&;e# t t3e #ist&*e &# t3us t3e "!i$it %" 3"e t t3e w;i& p$*e !e*"e esse&ti$ w3e& ssessi& t3t *ss-!#e $!u ";et. T3is wi$$ !e #is*usse# i& t3e %ist pt. T3e&, we s3$$ t;e  *$se $; t t3e $e$ issues #e$i& wit3 t3ese !#e-*ssi& *""utes i& t3e se*&# pt. 2.1 A spatio-temporal delimitation of mobility Aist % $$, it is &e*ess t %*us & t3e "e&i& % t3e w# "!i$it, w3i*3, si&*e t3e t3e 2000s, 3s e&**3e# up& t3e w#s su*3 s te$  %$w s$e$ use# i& t3e %ie$# %  EJTIR 12(2), 2012, pp. 178-197 De!e '#&*e"e&t i& +&*eptu$ii& +ss-/#e i$ !i$it: t3e /e&e$u +&tet i& t3e Eupe& &i& 180 t&spt e*&". See$ stes e &e*ess t *$i% t3e use % t3t w# wit3i& u *&*epti& % *ss-!#e #i$ "!i$it (De!e, 2008). S, spti$ "!i$it is &$ use# w3e& #e$i& wit3 pep$e (% #s, sei*es  *pit$, t3e &ti& % %$w is usu$$ use# % t3ese "e"e&ts wit3i& t3e e*&"i* &# p$iti*$ sste"s) w3 te$ wit3i&  we$$-#e%i&e# ep3i*$ e (<u%"&&, 2005). I&  se*&# ste, t3e pi&*ip$e %  pes&s spti$ "!i$it ssu"es t3t t3is pes& is e&#we# wit3  *eti& s*i$ Gu$it: t3e i&#ii#u$ is  *& !e "e# ($ite$$) &# is t3us e#e# s  pte&ti$it &#  *"pete&*e. T3us, #epe&#i& & t3e s*i$ up 3e  s3e !e$& t, t3t pes& wi$$ !e !$e t &# wi$$i& t ( &t t) "e. 's  esu$t, spti$ "!i$it !e*"es s*i-spti$ "!i$it  ep3i*$ "!i$it. Ai&$$, &# t3is is t3e $st *&*eptu$ ste, <u%"&&s tp$ (2000) e&!$es us t *"e up wit3  e$e&t #isti&*ti& ! septi& #i%%ee&t ep3i*$ "!i$ities $& spti-te"p$ *itei (%iue 1). Table 1. The different eoraphical mobilities Spti$ Te"p$ e"e&t wit3i&  *t*3"e&t e e"e&t tw#s t3e utsi#e %  *t*3"e&t e +*$i* "e"e&t i$ "!i$it Te$ i&e "e"e&t Resi#e&ti$ "!i$it iti& Source : <u%"&& (2000)   I& ##iti&, t3ese *itei e&!$e us t *$i% t3e "!i$e&t *3*teisti*s % t3e *ss-!#e $!u ";et, w3i*3 is ss*ite# wit3 !t3 *ss-!#e (#i$) *""utes &# *ss-!#e "i&ts (J&sse&, 2000= S3utt$ewt3, 2007). T3us, t3e te"p$ s*$e *&tsts, & t3e &e 3&#, **$i* ju&es t3t ep$i*it$ i&$e eu$ epetiti& &#, i"p$i*it$,  etu& t t3e stti& pi&t, &# & t3e t3e 3&#, $i&e ju&es, w3i*3 # &t eGuie  etu&. T3e %"e te"p$it, w3i*3 is t t3e *e % u *&ti!uti&, e%es t  #i$ uti&e, &# t3e $tte t t3e $i%e **$e itse$%. 's % t3e spti$ s*$e, it *&tsts ju&es wit3i&  *t*3"e&t e wit3  ju&es !e&# t3t e. T3e INSEE (200@, Ae&*3 National Institute  % Statistics  &# E*&"i* Stu#ies) suests #e%i&i& *t*3"e&t e s t3e s"$$est pssi!$e e wit3i& w3i*3 i&3!it&ts 3e **ess t !t3 %*i$ities &# j!s. 's  esu$t, t3t e is & e t3t " %%e *tiities &# 3usi& t i&#ii#u$s, w3et3e t3e use t3ese %*i$ities i& t3ei ee# $ies  &t. T3ese e$e"e&ts % t3e #e%i&iti& % ep3i*$ "!i$it te&# t !i& !ut t3e i#e t3t *""uti& 3s  spti$ &# te"p$ i"p*t. et us t;e  *$se $; t t3ese ju&es wit3i&  *t*3"e&t e, &# e# t3e" s ep3i*$ "!i$it t3t is &w $*$ (we s3$$ just *$$ it $*$ "!i$it): w3t e t3e e$e&t t3es3$#s t #isti&uis3 it %" t3e tpes % ep3i*$ "!i$it, t3e esi#e&ti$ "iti& &# "!i$it % w3i*3 " $s sp; %% t3e #ee$p"e&t %  t&s&ti&$ $!u ";et (Ste, 2002) >&  spti$ $ee$, >%eui$ (2000) *3se t #e%i&e $*$ "!i$it s t3e w3$e set % ju&es t3t **u wit3i& & 80 ;i$"ete Eu*$i#i& #ist&*e (u3$ eGui$e&t t 100 ;" i& e$ *&#iti&s). T3t t3es3$# is justi%ie# ! t3e use % %st "e&s % t&spt (*, ti&, et*.) t3t ";e it pssi!$e t etu& 3"e ee #. I& %*t, t3e &ti& % #ist&*e #epe&#s & t3e *3se& "e&s % t&spt, i& $i3t % t3e %*t t3t pep$e #ete & ee &e 3u  # t *""uti& (K3i, 1974, ee& i% t3is *&*ept is #is*usse#: see % e"p$e J$, 2005). T3is *itei& % spti$ &e see"s e$e&t t %ist !e*use it $$ws us t "esue t3e *t*3"e&t e i& e$ te"s, !ut t3e e"ee&*e % &ew "!i$it 3!its *3$$e&es t3t t3es3$#, pti*u$$ si&*e $&  ju&es t w; 3e !e*"e *""&, t3&;s t #i$ 3i3-spee# ti&s % e"p$e. 's % s t3e /e&e$u is *&*e&e#, t3e 80 ;" st&## " &t !e e$e&t. I&#ee#, i% we %*us & ue"!u &# e*;& t3t "st *ss-!#e *""utes #ie  i#e "e t3& 40 ;" t w;, &# $et us &t #ise# t3e i"p*t % t3e Est-Eupe& TDL t3t 3s !ee& #ee$pi& pi#$ si&*e 2007, t3e #e$i"itti&s % t3e &w !#e-*ssi& *t*3"e&t e e"i& ue.  EJTIR 12(2), 2012, pp. 178-197 De!e '#&*e"e&t i& +&*eptu$ii& +ss-/#e i$ !i$it: t3e /e&e$u +&tet i& t3e Eupe& &i& 181 >&  te"p$ $ee$, t3e #isti&*ti& !etwee& ius tpes % spti$ "!i$it is !se# &  #e%i&iti& % ee# $i%e. 't %ist, &e "i3t s t3t #i$ "!i$it i"s t %u$%i$$i& ee# ts;s, w3i*3 #es &t 3e$p us i& *3si&  te"p$ t3es3$# i& #e t #e%i&e t3t ;i&# % "!i$it. S, w3t #es ee# $i%e *&sist % Fe " es&!$ eje*t i& t3is *&tet t3e i#e % ee# "e&i&  #i$ epetiti& % *tiities (E&u, 2009). +&seGue&t$, tw u"e&ts e put %w# t #e%i&e ee# ts;s: epetiti& &# uti&e (R"#ie, ee-Dsse$i&, Ae&ette, 2005). i$ *tiities e epetitie wit3i&  s3t pei# % ti"e, !ut it is &eet3e$ess #i%%i*u$t t spe*i% t3e $e&t3 % t3t pei#. 's it is epete#, it is es % #i$ *tiit t !e*"e set i& pep$es ws &#, s  esu$t, t3e uti&e, i.e.  3!itu$  "e*3&i*$ pe%"&*e % & est!$is3e# p*e#ue t3u3 ti"e, !e*"es %ie#. Re%ei& t t3ese e$e"e&ts, we " #isti&uis3 #i$ *tiities %" %*tu$ &es. T3e $tte "i3t !e set i&  pes&s *t*3"e&t e !ut t3ei e*epti&$ &tue sets t3e" #e %*t utsi#e t3e &e % ee# $i%e. 's e#s esi#e&ti$ "!i$it, it is #e%i&e# s  e$*ti& % &es esi#e&*e wit3i& t3e s"e *t*3"e&t e. Fit3ut *&si#ei& t3e es&s % "i&, it is &eet3e$ess es t #isti&uis3 it %" esi#e&ti$ "iti&. T3e $tte is "e %te& e$te# t  e$*ti& #ue t  j! pptu&it i& &t3e e, "ee su&ws3ippi&  #i%%i*u$t $ii& *&#iti&s i& &es *u&t % ii& (p$iti*$ e%uee, et*.). Resi#e&ti$ "!i$ities e "u*3 "e e$te# t &es $i%e **$e (!it3 %  *3i$#, etti& "ie#, et*.), pptu&ities wit3i& t3e $*$ ";et % 3usi& i& es t3t e "e  $ess u!&ise#, tu!$e wit3 &ei3!us   wis3 %  &ew e&i&"e&t, t3us %$$wi& we$$-#e%i&e# esi#e&ti$ stteies (/&$et, Ai!u, 1990). T3is sttei* #e$i&eti& i& & *se "e&s t3t esi#e&ti$ "!i$it i&$es s*i$, e*&"i* &# *u$tu$ *&ti&uit. I% we $i"it t3e &e % t3is ese*3 stu#, s spe*i%ie# e$ie, t t3e *ss-!#e $!u ";et, we &ti*e t3t t3e *&*ept % #i$ "!i$it e&!$es us t #isti&uis3 t3e tw %e"e&ti&e# tpes % *ss-!#e "!i$it *$e$ %" e*3 t3e, t3t % *""utes &# t3t % "i&ts. / t;i& i&t **u&t !t3 *&#iti&s, i.e.  #ist&*e &t e*ee#i& 100 ;" &#  eu$ *tiit, t3ese i& %*t e%$e*t t3e *&#iti&s ise# ! Eupe& sttes t Gu$i% s  *ss-!#e *""ute. 2.2 A jurisdictional delimitation using spatio-temporal characteristics of daily cross-border mobility ' &" % spti$ #e$i"itti& is use# i& t3e *$uses % $e$ st&##iti& % t3e *ss-!#e *""ute. 's e$ s 19@8,  *&e&ti& si&e# ! A&*e &# Swite$&# est!$is3e# u$es % &ei3!u3# e$ti&s stipu$ti& t3t t3e !#e ei&s i&$e# i& t3is *&e&ti& sp&  #ist&*e % 10 ;" & eit3e si#e % t3e p$iti*$ !#e. te, s pt % t3e &i& % Feste& Eupe i& 1956,  *&e&ti& si&e# ! A&*e &# Feste& De"& $s *i*u"s*i!e# t3e &es w3ee e*3&es "i3t t;e p$*e t 10 ;" & eit3e si#e % t3e !#e. T3is #ist&*e ws t !e ete&#e# t 20 ;" t3ee es $te. Spti$ #e$i"itti& *"e $& wit3  te"p$ #e$i"itti& i& t3e EE+s eu$ti&s (196@). T3e tet pp$ie# t A&*-De"& e*3&es &# spe*i%ie# t3t t3e *ss-!#e w;e ws t etu& t 3is3e *u&t % esi#e&*e ee #  t $est &*e  wee;. 's % Swite$&#, i& **#&*e wit3  *&e&ti& si&e# i& 1958, pep$e "i3t &t w; *ss t3e !#e u&$ess t3e 3# !ee& $ii& i& eit3e *u&t % t $est si "&t3s. Mee i&, *ss-!#e w;es wee epe*te# t etu& t t3ei *u&t % esi#e&*e ee #. ee, t3e wee t !e i& pssessi& %  *te #e %&t$ie ( *ss-!#e w;e I *#). /t3 t3ese tpes % #e$i"itti&s, spti$ &# te"p$, !u3t %t3  $e$ sttus %  *ss-!#e w;e%&tie w;e, w3i*3 ws e*&ie# s su*3 wit3i& t3e Eupe& &i& i& 1971 &# ppee# i&  set % EE+ eu$ti&s &. 140871 & t3e pp$i*ti& % s*i$ se*uit s*3e"es t e"p$e# pes&s, t se$%-e"p$e# pes&s &# t "e"!es % t3ei %"i$ies "i& wit3i& t3e +""u&it: %&tie w;e "e&s & e"p$e#  se$%-e"p$e# pes& w3  EJTIR 12(2), 2012, pp. 178-197 De!e '#&*e"e&t i& +&*eptu$ii& +ss-/#e i$ !i$it: t3e /e&e$u +&tet i& t3e Eupe& &i& 182 pusues 3is **upti& i& t3e teit %  e"!e Stte &# esi#es i& t3e teit % &t3e e"!e Stte t w3i*3 3e etu&s s  u$e #i$  t $est &*e  wee;= 3wee,  %&tie w;e w3 is pste# e$sew3ee i& t3e teit % t3e s"e  &t3e e"!e Stte ! t3e u&#et;i& t w3i*3 3e is &"$$ tt*3e#,  w3 e&es i& t3e pisi& % sei*es e$sew3ee i& t3e teit % t3e s"e  &t3e e"!e Stte, s3$$ eti& t3e sttus % %&tie w;e %  pei# &t e*ee#i& %u "&t3s, ee& i% 3e is pee&te#, #ui& t3t pei#, %" etu&i& #i$  t $est &*e  wee; t t3e p$*e w3ee 3e esi#es. I& spite % t3e i$$-*i&e# p3se %&tie w;e, we " *;&w$e#e t3t t3e spti$ #e$i"itti& 3ee "t*3es t3t % t3e Eupe& &i&, &w#s "e pti*u$$ t3t % t3e S*3e&e& e, w3i$e t3e te"p$ #e$i"itti& *esp&#s t t3e *3*teisti*s % #i$ "!i$it "e&ti&e# i& t3e peius se*ti&. T3us, w3ees &ti&$ w;es p t3ei &ti&$ i&su&*e *&ti!uti&s &# tes s$e$ i& t3e *u&t i& w3i*3 t3e w; &# $ie, &# $s e*eie we$%e $$w&*es t3ee, t3ese Eupe& eu$ti&s stipu$te t3t t3ese *ss-!#e *""utes " !e&e%it %"  *#i&ti& % s*i$ se*uit sste"s % #i%%ee&t "e"!e sttes. T3e i"p$e"e&ti& eu$ti& (+EE &. 57472) 3s !ee& "#i%ie# si&*e t3e&, #ue t &u"eus *ses % $e$ pe*e#e&ts, !e t3e i& t3e %ie$# % tes  s*i$ we$%e (/e$;*e" et al. , 2006). T3ese *3&es i& t3e i"p$e"e&ti& u$es % t3e ius sste"s % s*i$ $$w&*es &# *#i&ti& e ee$i& i& e# t t3e p# e"!#ie# !  *ss-!#e w;e te$$i& uti&e$ !e&# t3e !u&#ies % 3is *u&t. T3t p# is e$e&t si&*e, i% we t&spse i"its pps$ (2008),  &ti&$ !#e, w3i*3 t3e "e"!e sttes u*3 %, *ts !t3 s !#e *&%i"i& &# s !#e t&s*e&#i&, "& t3e #i"e&si&s t3t e &t #eti$e# 3ee (see si, 1996  "e e*e&t$ Reite$, 2011). i"it "e&ti&s t3t #isti&*ti& espe*tie$ % i) Eupe& *u&ties % t3e S*3e&e& e &# t3e *u&ties & t3e &e 3&# &# % ii) Eupe& *u&ties wit3i& t3e S*3e&e& e & t3e t3e 3&#. I& t3e *se % t3e /e&e$u, t3e pt p$e# ! t3e !#e *&%i"i& *&*ept *&sists % "i&ti&i& t3e #i%%ee&ti$s, &t!$ t3e "*e*&"i* &es (su*3 s wes, ppet  e$ estte i&*"e) & eit3e si#e % t3e !#es, w3ees !#e t&s*e&#i& i"s t t;i& pt i& t3e p*ess % Eupe& teiti$ *3esi& ! 3e$pi& set up &es % i&te*ti&, e*3&es &# 3"e&isti& t3t wu$# 3e$p *u! "*- &# "i*-e*&"i* #is*&ti&uities. '*tu$$, we "i3t w&#e w3et3e t3e #u$ spe*t t3t we *& %i&# i& !#es (!t3 & i&te%*e &#  !ie) "i3t !e epese&te# ! t3e *ss-!#e w;es ee# $i%e s we$$. T3is issue wi$$ !e #ee$pe# i& t3e &et pt. !. "ross-border confirmin or transcendin# The cross-border daily mobility $uestion ' st& #esie % Eupe& teiti$ *3esi& 3s &$ e*e&t$ !ee& epesse# i& *"pis& wit3 t3e tte"pt t *3iee s*i$ &# e*&"i* *3esi&. F3ees t3e te" *3esi& ppee# i& t3e Si&$e Eupe& '*t s e$ s 1986, teiti$ *3esi& ws %ist %%i*i$$ "e&ti&e# i& t3e tet est!$is3i&  *&stituti& % Eupe i& 2004. '**#i& t Ds$&# &# M"e (2005), t3is #je*tie 3s see$ $s wit3i& t3e $eis$tie *&tet. T3ese $s ## up t t3e pt p$e# ! *ss-!#e w;es, s "e&ti&e# i& #eti$ peius$. T3us, pt %" i"i& t esti& ius #ispities "& Eupe& es, teiti$ *3esi& "e&s t3t *itie&s "i3t 3e **ess t sei*es pi#i& !si* &ee#s w3eee t3e e $*te# i&  ie& teit= **ess, "e pti*u$$ t w;, !e*"es esse&ti$, &# is $$ t3e "e s s % s *ss-!#e *""utes e *&*e&e#. Aut3e"e, spti$ #i"e&si&s *& !e %u&# i& t3e %ie$# % teiti$ *3esi&, w3i*3 &es %"  $*$ s*$e (u!& 3ettes e "e&ti&e#) t  "* Eupe& s*$e, #epe&#i& & t3e #i%%ee&t %%i*i$ &i& p*esses (w3i*3 e %te& ei&$). ' pii, $$ t3se !je*ties t3t e e$te# t teiti$ *3esi& "t*3 t3e p*ess % !#e t&s*e&#i&, i.e. t3e p$ t3e pt % & i&te%*e wit3i& w3i*3 t3e &u"!e % i&te*ti&s &#
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