A STUDY OF SELECTED HYMNS OF SAINT TUKARAM Nivedita Deshmukh, Ph.D.

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In total, an advice was given in all the compositions of all saints to adopt the path of devotion like importance of remembrance of God, devotion without expectation of any fruit, submission to him who is sans discrimination. The entire saints have
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   SRJIS/BIMONTHLY/NIVEDITA DESHMUKH(1662-1665) JULY-AUG, 2014. VOL-II/XIII www.srjis.com Page 1662 A STUDY OF SELECTED HYMNS OF SAINT TUKARAM Nivedita Deshmukh, Ph.D. Department of EducationD.Y.Patil UniversityNavi Mumbai    In total, an advice was given in all the compositions of all saints to adopt the path of devotion like importance of remembrance of God, devotion without expectation of any fruit, submission to him who is sans discrimination. The entire saints have simplified the path to devotion of God, mancipation of life and attaining the highest place of freedom from life i.e. mokshya, with their  self experience only by pronouncing his name. The fulfillment, happiness and freedom from cycle of life and death of the entire human beings is not possible without chanting of Harinama.  Dnyandev demanded blessings from his Mentor of peaceful universe by making a pledge of motto ‘I will make the entire universe happy’ and gave upmost place to devotion of Guru.  All saints renounced everything and guided the true path of devotion by keeping superstition at bay and not following the path of pilgrimage, giving up the conjugal life and through fasts but by taking refuge to counting His name, reciting Him with true heart. Everyone has to has adopt any  profession to meet both hands meet. It might be any profession. But He is omnipresent. Every  saint has made his profession great through his devotion. For eg. Savata Mali, Gora Kumbhar,  Narhari Sonar, Nama Shimpi, Tukarametc. The truth of presence of God in every living and dead, place should be accepted is the insistence of the saint. Every composition of the saints are  pregnant with meanings and they are useful in finding the solution to the problems in the life. Though these compositions are hard to understand, they are useful in convincing the place and importance of saints in life and marital life. While raising Bhagawat sect, Dnyandev has given extract of ideological life development to the society through affluence literature like  Dnyaneshwari. In the further period, the holiness and purity of the same extract was preserved by saints Namdev, Eknath, Tukaram etc. SantTukaram was born in the year 1577 and lived most of his life in Dehu, a town close to Pune in   Mahārāshtra  , India. SantTukaram was a prominent  Abstract   SRJIS/BIMONTHLY/NIVEDITA DESHMUKH(1662-1665) JULY-AUG, 2014. VOL-II/XIII www.srjis.com Page 1663 VarkariSant and spiritual poet of the Bhakti. SantTukaram was a devotee of Vitthala , a form of  god  Vishnu.Tukaram's full name was Tukaram Bolhoba Aambile. In the said research, a study of  selected hymns of saint Tukaram was conducted.  Key words:  Bhakti, Sadguru,Sant,. Introduction   Tukaram Maharaj is commonly known in Maharashtra as ‘SantTukaram’. Tukaram accepted  'Namdevmaharajas his Guru. One of his hymn he says.Namdev woke me from a dream, and  prepared me for the service of Lord Vitthal.’NamdevkeleswapnamajijagesevePandurange  yeuniya. SantTukaram has also mentioned in one of his hymn that his sadguru's name is 'BabajiChaitanya'.’BabajiChaitanyasangitalenam,  mantra dila RamkrishnaHari’.  Dnyaneshwar, Namdev. Janabai, Eknath, and Tukaram are revered especially in the VarkariSamprday in Maharashtra. The said research was conducted to study the following objectives. Objectives 1. To study the selected hymns of Saint Tukaram. 2. To study the similarity of the thought of Saint Tukaram’s hymns.   Saint Tukaram’s selected hymns - AntariNirmalVachecheRasal | Tyache Gala Mal AsoNaso | ……………….. ParadravyaAndhaNindesi Jo Muka |To cheSantDekhaTukaMhane | While counting characteristics of a saint,TukaramMaharaj said  –   He is saint who is clear by inner soul, speaks sweet words, Whether he bears string or not, found paths with self experience,Whether bear conch-shell or not, dumb about others' slander. Aayushavechunikutumbposhile …………… Tukamhaneaiseparatayushanasile | Pap tesanchile   patnasi| You nurture the family by devoting the entire life,Now tell me what welfare have you achieved. In the service toiled hard without any penny, Not enjoyed happiness for a single moment, Gave everything to the family but lost this rare life in work.Lost all the life so, only assembled sins to be doomed Scholarly Research Journal's   is licensed Based on a work at    www.srjis.com 4.194, 2013 SJIF. © SRJIS 2014     SRJIS/BIMONTHLY/NIVEDITA DESHMUKH(1662-1665) JULY-AUG, 2014. VOL-II/XIII www.srjis.com Page 1664 Sadguruvachunsapadena soy ……………….Tukamhaneaiseandhale he jandandugelevisaroona  kharya deva | There's no alternative convenience without Satguru. Lean before him. He immediately made us in his own image. It does not require any specific time. Hence He does it at any time. No simile is becoming his stature. The greatness of Satgru is profound. TukaramMaharaj said that these were the blind people who have forgotten the true God. Tin shire saha hath ………………… . Tukamhanedighambar | Tayamazanamaskar | Three heads, six hands, my prostration to Him! Begging bag underarm, dog in front of,   always bathing in the river, Becoming with Count the name of Vithoba by the mouth, Become happy by staring at the face of Vithoba, Oh my ears, hear only the virtues of Vitthal. Hey my mind, lean at the feet of Vithoba and be there. Gheyegheye maze vache ………………….. Tukamhanejiva |Naka soduyakeshva |  While counting characteristics of a saint,TukaramMaharaj said  –   He is saint who is clear by inner soul, speaks sweet words, Whether he bears string or not, found  paths withself experience,Whether bear conch-shell or not, dumb about others' slander. Hey my mind! do not entangle in temptation and wealth, time is nearing.  Na milo khavayana vadhosantan ………………… Tukamhanenashivant he sakal |Athavegopal  tyachihith | Saint Tukaram ordered through his hymns to his soul not to renounce this Keshava. Even though I do not get anything to eat, do not bear child, my mouth always speak about the  blessings of this Narayana and also told the people -Though this physic is devastated due to calamities, let Narayan be in my soul,All this is perishable; it is here Gopal's happenings and interest stored.heavy matted hairs, cracking sound of hard slippers,  Na konakomanaguntumayajali………………………………………………………..ekaChakrapa ni vachuniya Hey my mind! do not entangle in temptation and wealth, time is nearing.When the death  pounces, mother-father is of no use.Hey King, Ruler of the country! none of your relatives will rescue yousans   SRJIS/BIMONTHLY/NIVEDITA DESHMUKH(1662-1665) JULY-AUG, 2014. VOL-II/XIII www.srjis.com Page 1665 this one Chakrapani! Conclusion Saint Tukaram's hymns are depicting Vitthal's devotion and characteristics of other Gods. We came to notice this only after studying his hymns. These hymns are based on description of Duttaguru and Ganpati. In the end, these hymns appeals to lost oneself in the devotion of God by renouncing selfishness. Social enlightenment, love for nature, philosophy, simile and others can  be found in Tukaram's hymns. He has also depicted characteristics of saint. And he also advised   to use every organ for the devotion of God. Forever remembrance of God is the teaching of Tukaram'shymns. In the last, good thought is good deed, good friendship and good relationship is the implied meaning Tukaram has told through his hymns. References Bhakti Margadarshan- Jai Prakashan Madhyayugin Marathi VangmayachaItihaas-TMV WWW.Wikepedia.com
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