A new species of Neocorynura from Ecuador (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), with notes on taxonomy of the genus

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A new species of the Neotropical bee genus Neocorynura (Halictinae: Augochlorini) is described and figured. Neocorynura miae, new species, combines characters traditionally used to distinguish Neocorynura from its relative Andinaugochlora (sensu
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  1051  Accepted by L. Packer: 23 Aug. 2005; published: 20 Sept.. 2005   55 ZOOTAXA ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)ISSN   1175-5334   (online edition) Copyright © 2005 Magnolia Press  Zootaxa  1051: 55 – 64 (2005) www.mapress.com  /  zootaxa  /  A new species of  Neocorynura  from Ecuador (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), with notes on taxonomy of the genus ALLAN H. SMITH-PARDO  Division of Entomology, Natural History Museum, and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Snow Hall, 1460 Jayhawk Boulevard, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045-7523, USA.  E-mail: ahsmith@ku.edu Abstract A new species of the Neotropical bee genus  Neocorynura  (Halictinae: Augochlorini) is describedand figured.  Neocorynura miae , new species, combines characters traditionally used to distinguish  Neocorynura  from its relative  Andinaugochlora  (sensu Michener, 2000). The taxonomicplacement of  N  . miae in the genus is presented and a revised diagnosis of  Neocorynura  is provided. Key words:  Apoidea, Augochlorini, Phylogeny, Bee, Colombia Resumen Se describe una especie nueva de abeja del género Neotropical  Neocorynura  (Halictinae:Augochlorini).  Neocorynura miae , especie nueva, combina caracteres usados tradicionalmente paradistinguir  Neocorynura  del genero cercano  Andinaugochlora  (sensu Michener, 2000). Se presentala ubicación taxonómica de  N. miae  en el género, así como una diagnosis revisada de  Neocorynura . Palabras clave:  Apoidea, Augochlorini, filogenia, abeja INTRODUCTION The bee genus  Neocorynura  Schrottky is one of the largest genera in the bee tribeAugochlorini (Halictidae: Halictinae) with approximately 60 to 65 described species(Eickwort 1969, Moure and Hurd 1987, Engel 1999, Engel 2000, Michener 2000), and anequal number of undescribed species (Smith-Pardo, unpubl.data). It ranges from northernArgentina to Mexico (Eickwort 1969, Engel 2000, Michener 2000). There are nocomprehensive studies of the genus or its diversity, but preliminary data suggest a larger  SMITH-PARDO 56   © 2005  Magnolia Press 1051 ZOOTAXA number of species of  Neocorynura  in northern South America, especially Colombia,Ecuador, and Per ú  (Smith-Pardo, unpublished data). This is perhaps partially a result of the fact that  Neocorynura  is one of the few bee genera that reach high altitudes in theAndes (Gonzalez and Engel 2004). There is no clear consensus on the limits of the genus, and its definition variesaccording to the authority. In addition, several phylogenetic analyses of the tribeAugochlorini (Eickwort 1969, Engel 2000, Danforth 2002) have had difficultyestablishing the monophyly of  Neocorynura . MATERIAL AND METHODS Morphological observations, measurements, and illustrations were made using anOlympus SZ60 microscope fitted with an ocular micrometer. The abbreviations F, S, T,OD, and PD are used for flagellomere, metasomal sternum, metasomal tergum, ocellardiameter, and puncture diameter, respectively. Morphological terminology follows that of Michener (2000) and Engel (2001), while Harris (1979) is used for surface sculpturing.The description follows the format used for other augochlorine bees (e.g., Engel 1999,2000; Engel and Smith-Pardo 2004). The redefinition of the genus presented here is based on a comprehensive study on theevolutionary relationships among the species of  Neocorynura  (Smith-Pardo, in prep.). The specimens used for this study are deposited in the following institutions: AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New York (J. G. Rozen, Jr., Valerie Giles); SEMC Entomology Division, Natural History Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence(M. S. Engel, Z. H. Falin). SYSTEMATICSGenus  Neocorynura  Schrottky Cacosoma  Smith, 1879: 39. Type species: Cacosoma discolor   Smith, 1879, by subsequent desig-nation of Sandhouse (1943). Preoccupied.  Neocorynura  Schrottky, 1910: 540. Replacement name for Cacosoma  Smith, 1879. Engel, 2000: 45. Michener, 2000: 393.  Neocorynura  (  Neocorynuroides ) Eickwort, 1969: 404. Type species:  Halictus rhytis  Vachal, 1904,by srcinal designation and monotypy. Engel, 2000: 45 [as synonym of  Neocorynura ].Michener, 2000: 393. [as synonym of  Neocorynura ].  Andinaugochlora  Eickwort, 1969: 407. Type species:  Andinaugochlora micheneri  Eickwort, 1969,by srcinal designation and monotypy. Engel, 2000: 29. Michener, 2000:384. N. syn.  Neocorynurella  Engel in Engel and Klein, 1997: 156. Type species:  Neocorynurella seeleyi  Engel   © 2005 Magnolia Press 57 A NEW  NEOCORYNURA 1051 ZOOTAXA and Klein, 1997, by srcinal designation. Engel, 2000: 46. Michener, 2000: 384. [as subgenusof  Andinaugochlora ]. N. syn. Vachalius  Moure, 1999: 74. Type species:  Halictus cosmetor   Vachal, 1911, by srcinal designationand monotypy. Engel, 2000: 46 [as synonym of  Neocorynurella ]. N. syn. Previous authors recognized the genus using the combination of the followinghomoplasious characters: preoccipital carina present, paraocular angle obtuse (absent),anterior border of mesoscutum often narrowed, and inner metatibial spur pectinate. Thegenus as understood herein, includes species that do not agree with this combination of characters, some of which have the preoccipital carina absent/faint to strongly carinate/ lamellate, paraocular angle variable from obtuse (absent) to forming a right angle, andinner metatibial spur pectinate but variable in shape and number of teeth.  Diagnosis The genus  Neocorynura  in the present sense is well supported by the followingputative synapomorphies and by the combination of some additional characters.The synapomorphies for the genus include: a labral process on anterior margin ,metabasitibial plate elongated, sometimes covered with setae; and the pores on the surfaceof the galea uniformly distributed.Some other characters that in combination help in recognizing the genus include, inthe females: integument of interantennal area imbricate and punctate, second submarginalcell wider than long, mandible mostly dark, sometimes with clear apex, mesotibial spuralmost straight, first labial palpomere as long as the combined lengths of the followingtwo, and glossa elongate and narrowly pointed. In males: dorsal surface of volsella acuteor with hump, pores on S5 uniformly distributed across entire surface, and the posteriormargin of T6 rounded. Comments The unification of  Neocorynura and  Andinaugochlora (senso Michener 2000) resultsin the following new combinations:1. “seeleyi species group” (= former  Neocorynurella )  Neocorynura seeleyi  (Engel and Klein), new combination  Neocorynura viridis  (Engel and Klein), new combination2. “joannisi species group” (= former  Andinaugochlora s.str.)  Neocorynura micheneri  (Eickwort), new combination  Neocorynura joannisi  (Vachal), new combination3. Presently not placed as to species group (these will be treated in Smith-Pardo, in prep.)  Neocorynura cosmetor   (Vachal), new combination (= former  Neocorynurella  in part)  SMITH-PARDO 58   © 2005  Magnolia Press 1051 ZOOTAXA  Neocorynura centralpina  Engel & Smith-Pardo, new combination (= former  Andinaugochlora  in part)Definitions of species groups across  Neocorynura  diversity will be presented in aforthcoming contribution (Smith-Pardo, in prep.). The unification of these genera requires some minor modifications to the generic keysprovided by Engel (2000) and Michener (2000). These alterations are as follows: InEngels (2000) key to females the first half of couplet 24 should read  Neocorynura (changed from  Andinaugochlora )  ,  couplet 26 can be removed entirely, and the second half of couplet 30 should read  Neocorynura  (changed from  Neocorynurella ). In Engels (2000)key to males the first half of couplet 27 should read  Neocorynura (changed from  Andinaugochlora  and  Neocorynurella ), and couplet 28 can be removed entirely. InMicheners (2000) key to females the first half of couplet 23 should read  Neocorynura (  N. joannisi species group), and the second half of couplet 27 should read  Neocorynura (  N.seeleyi species group). In Micheners (2000) key to males the second half of couplet 21should read  Neocorynura (  N. seeleyi species group), and the first part of couplet 25 shouldread  Neocorynura (  N. joannisi species group).  Neocorynura miae sp. nov. (Figs. 1, 2)  Diagnosis  Neocorynura miae  is most similar to the  N. seeleyi species group in overallappearance: robust, very setose; the shape of inner metatibial spur (serrate-pectinate), andin having a well-defined metabasitibial plate covered with some coarse setae. It differsfrom them in having a protuberant, rounded medial process of the labrum that covers mostof its apex; the paraocular lobe angular; the presence of a postoccipital carina; and inhaving a single row of coarse setae on the metabasitibial plate.  Neocorynura miae  alsolooks similar to the other species groups of  Neocorynura , but it can be separated fromthem by the shape of the labral process, the shape of the metabasitibial plate, and by theform of the inner metatibial spur.  Description Female  (Holotype). Body length 12.5 mm; forewing length 11.5 mm. Head width 3.5mm, length 3.2 mm. Scape longer than combined lengths of F1 to F6; F10 longer thanpreceding flagellomeres; F1 slightly longer than F2. Clypeus 1.5 times wider than long;paraocular lobe obtuse semi-angular. Mesoscutum wider than long; metanotum more thanhalf-length of mesoscutellum. Mesotibial spur serrate and more than half length of mesobasitarsus; inner metatibial spur serrate-pectinate with more than 6 teeth, last two(apical process and subapical tooth) almost completely fused. Marginal cell elongate,   © 2005 Magnolia Press 59 A NEW  NEOCORYNURA 1051 ZOOTAXA almost as long as length of three submarginal cells together; 1m-cu not confluent with 1rs-m; 2m-cu basad 2rs-m by more than 6 times vein width; first submarginal cell longer thancombined lengths of second and third submarginal cells together; second submarginal cellrectangular; anterior border of third submarginal cell longer than anterior border of secondsubmarginal cell; pterostigma large, narrow (sides almost completely parallel), and withmargin in marginal cell convex; hamuli spaced 3-1-1-2. Basal area of propodeum stronglyimbricate and shorter than mesoscutellum. T1 semi-petiolate (slightly longer than wide). FIGURE 1.  Lateral habitus of  Neocorynura miae  sp. nov. a.  female, b.  male.
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