44 | Benchmarking | Project Management

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Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester 2 MB0044 – Production & operations Management - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1133) Assignment Set- 1 60 Marks Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. 1. What are the components of systems productivity? Explain how CAD and CIM help in improving productivity. Ans. system productivity is a very important function for improving productivity in any unit. we can say with the help same input using we can maximize our output or productivit
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  Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester 2MB0044 – Production & operations Management - 4 Credits(Book ID: B1133)Assignment Set- 160 MarksNote: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. 1.What are the components of systems productivity? Explain how CAD and CIM help inimproving productivity.Ans. system productivity is a very important function for improving productivity in any unit. wecan say with the help same input using we can maximize our output or productivity.Fig Operations Management Flow ChartProduction management encompasses all activities which go into conversion of a sate of inputs   into outputs which are useful to meet human needs. It involves the identification of the perquisitematerials, knowledge of the processes, and installation of equipments necessary to convert or transform the materials to products. System productivity is generally expressed as the ratio of outputsto inputs. Productivity can be calculated for a single operation, a functional unit, a departmentdivisionor a plant. It is a measure of the efficiency of the system and looks at the economies achievedduringthe processes. Every process will have number of contributors-people machines, facilitating  goods,ancillary equipments, technology, etc. Which help in achieving maximum productivity - eachelementattempting to enhance the contribution of other elements? Enhancement of productivity isachieved byeither reducing the inputs for the same output or increasing the output by using the same input.Opportunities exist at all stages of the workflow . The entire system of introduce measures for increasing productivity. However in actualmanufacturing situations, the inefficiencies will have cascading effect in hampering productivity.Communication, effective review processes and innovative methods will ensure optimization of resources. Capital productivity: Capital deployed in plant, machinery, buildings and thedistributionsystem as well asworking capitalare components of the oust of manufacture and need to be productive. Demand fluctuations, uncertainties of production owing to breakdowns andinventories being crated drag the productivity down. Therefore, strategies are needed to maximize theutilizationof the funds allotted towards capital. Adapting to new technologies, outsourcing and balancing of theworkstations to reduce the proportion of idle times on equipments are the focus of this section.computers in design and manufacturing applications makes it possible to remove much of thetediumand manual labor involved. For example, the many design specifications, blueprints, materiallists,and other documents needed to build complex machines can require thousands of highlytechnical andaccurate drawings and charts. If the engineers decide structural components need to be changed,all of these plans and drawings must be changed. Prior to CAD/CAM, human designers anddraftspersonshad to change them manually, a time consuming and error-prone process. When a CAD systemisused, the computer can automatically evaluate and change all corresponding documentsinstantly. Inaddition, by using interactive graphics workstations, designers, engineers, and architects cancreatemodels or drawings, increase or decrease sizes, rotate or change them at will, and see resultsinstantly on screen.  CAD is particularly valuable in space programs, where many unknown design variables areinvolved. Previously, engineers depended upon trial-and-error testing and modification, a timeconsuming and possibly life-threatening process. However, when aided by computer simulationand testing, a great deal of time, money, and possibly lives can be saved. Besides its use in themilitary, CAD is also used in civil aeronautics, automotive, and data processing industries.CAM, commonly utilized in conjunction with CAD, uses computers to communicate instructionsto automated machinery. CAM techniques are especially suited for manufacturing plants, wheretasks are repetitive, tedious, or dangerous for human workers.Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM), a term popularized by Joseph Harrington in 1975, isalsoknown as autofacturing. CIM is a programmable manufacturing method designed to link CAD,CAM,industrial robotics, and machine manufacturing using unattended processing workstations. CIMoffersuninterrupted operation from raw materials to finished product, with the added benefits of qualityassurance and automated assembly.Three-dimensional velocity models for the basins along the coast of Washington and in PugetLowland provide a means for better understanding the lateral variations in strong ground motionsrecorded there. We have compiled 16 sonic and 18 density logs from 22 oil test wells to help usdetermine the geometry and physical properties of the Cenozoic basins alongcoas talWashington.The depth ranges sampled by the test-well logs fall between 0.3 and 2.1 km. These well logssampleQuaternary to middle Eocene sedimentary rocks of the QuinaultF ormation, MontesanoFormation,and Hoh rock assemblage. Most (18 or 82%) of the wells are from Grays Harbor County, andmany of these are from the Ocean City area. These Grays Harbor County wells sample theQuinault Formation, Montesano Formation, and frequently bottom in the Hoh rock assemblage.These wells show that the sonic velocity and density normally increase significantly across thecontacts between the Quinault or the Montesano Formations and the Hoh rock assemblage.Reflection coefficients calculated for vertically traveling compressional waves from the averagevelocities and densities for these units suggest that the top of the Hoh rock assemblage is a strongreflector of downward-propagating seismic waves: these reflection coefficients lie between 11and 20%. Thus, this boundary may reflect seismic energy upward and trap a substantial portionof the seismic energy generated by future earthquakes within the Miocene and younger sedimentary basins found along the Washington coast.  Three wells from Jefferson County provide data for the Hoh rock assemblage for the entirelength of the logs. One well (Eastern Petroleum Sniffer Forks #1), from the Forks area in Clallam County,alsoexclusively samples the Hoh rock assemblage. This report presents the locations, elevations,depths,stratigraphic, and other information for all the oil test wells, and provides plots showing thedensityand sonic velocities as a function of depth for each well log. We also present two-way traveltimes for 15 of the wells calculated from the sonic velocities. Average velocities and densities for the wellshaving both logs can be reasonably well related using a modifiedG ardner’srule, with p=1825v(1/4),where p is the density (in kg/m3) and v is the sonic velocity (in km/s). Finally, we presentlaboratorymeasurements of compression-wave velocity, shear-wave velocity, and density for 11 greywackeand29 magic rocks from the Olympic Peninsula and Puget Lowland.These units have significance for earthquake-hazard investigations in PugetLowland asthey dip eastward beneath the Lowland, forming the “bedrock” beneath much of the lowland.AverageVp/Vs ratios for the magic rocks, mainly Crescent Formation volcanic, lie between 1.81 and1.86.Average Vp/Vs ratios for the greywacke from the accretionary core complex in the OlympicPeninsula show greater scatter but lie between 1.77 and 1.88. Both the Olympic Peninsula magicrocks and greywacke have lower shear-wave velocities than would be expected for a Poissonsolid(Vp/Vs=1.732). Although the P-wave velocities and densities in the greywacke can be related byaGardner’s rule of p=1720v(1/4), close to the p=1740v(1/4) proposed by Gardner et al. (1974), thevelocities and densities of the magic rocks are best related by a Gardner’s rule of p=1840v(1/4).Thus,the density/velocity relations are similar for the Puget Lowland well logs and greywacke fromtheOlympic Peninsula. Density/velocity relations are similar for the Washington coastal well logsandmafic rocks from the Olympic Peninsula, but differ from those of the Puget Lowland well logs
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