43597 Hindustani Music | Classical And Art Music Traditions | Classical Music

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Hindustani Music
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  Hindustani Classical MusicCharacteristics The tradition was born out of a cultural synthesis of several musical traditions: the Vedic chant tradition, dating back to more than three thousand years ago, [1]  the ancient Persian tradition of  Musiqi-e assil,and   various folk traditions prevalent in the region.It is traditional for performers who have reached a distinguished level of achievement to be awarded titlesof respect; Hindus are usually referred to as   pandit   andMuslims as  ustad  .An aspect of Hindustani music   going back to Sufi times is the tradition of religious neutrality: Muslim ustads may sing compositions in praise of Hindu deities, and vice versa. Around the 12th century, Hindustani classical music diverged from what eventually came to be identifiedas Carnatic classical music.The central notion in both these systems is that of a melodic mode or  raga,  sung to a rhythmic cycle or  tala.The tradition dates back to the ancient Samaveda,( sāma meaning ritualchant ), which deals with the norms for chanting of  srutis or hymns such as the  Rig Veda .These   principles were refined in the musical treatises  Natya Shastra ,byBharata (2nd  – 3rd century CE),   and  Dattilam  (probably 3rd  – 4th century CE). [2]     In medieval times, the melodic systems were fused with ideas from Persian music, particularly throughthe influence of  Sufi composers like  Amir Khusro,and later in the Moghul courts. Noted composers such   as Tansen flourished, along with religious groups like the Vaishnavites.After the 16th century, the singing styles diversified into different gharanas patronized in different princely courts. Around 1900, Vishnu   Narayan Bhatkhande consolidated the musical structures of Hindustani classical music, called ragas,into   a number of  thaats.Indian classical music has seven basic notes with five interspersed half-notes, resulting in a 12-note scale. Unlike the 12-note scale in Western music, the base frequency of the scale isnot fixed, and intertonal gaps(temperament)may also vary; however, with the gradual replacement of    the sarangi by the harmonium,an equal tempered scale is increasingly used. The performance is set to a   melodic pattern called araga characterized in part by specific ascent(aroha)and descent(avaroha)  sequences, which may not be identical. Other characteristics include king (vadi)and queen (samavadi)notes and characteristic phrases(pakad). In addition each raga has its natural register (ambit)   and portamento (meend)rules. Performances are usually marked by considerable improvisation within   these norms.[edit] History   Music was first formalized in India in connection with preserving the sruti texts, primarily the four  vedas,  which are seen as apaurasheya (meaning not created by man ). Not only was the text important, but alsothe manner in which they had been enunciated by the immortals. Prosody and chanting were thus of great importance, and were enshrined in the two vedangas (bodies of knowledge) called shiksha (pronunciation, chants) and chhandas (prosody); these remained a key part of the brahmanic educational system till modern times.The formal aspects of the chant are delineated in the  Samaveda ,with certain aspects, e.g. the relation of chanting to meditation, elaborated in the  Chandogya Upanishad   (ca. 8th century BC). Priests involved in   these ritual chants were called samans and a number of ancient musical instruments such as  the conch(shankh), lute(veena), flute(bansuri), trumpets and horns were associated with this and later  practices of ritual singing.[edit] Sanskritic tradition   The Samaveda outlined the ritual chants for singing the verses of the Rigveda, particularly for offerings of  Soma.It proposed a tonal structure consisting of seven notes, which were named, in descending order, krusht  ,  pratham , dwitiya , tritiya , chaturth , mandra and atiswār  . These refer to the notes of a flute,which was the only fixed-frequency instrument. This is why the second note is called  pratham (meaning first , i.e., produced when only the first hole is closed).Music is dealt with extensively in the Valmiki  Ramayana . Narada is an accomplished musician, as   is Ravana; Saraswati with her  veena is the goddess of music.Gandharvas are presented as spirits who are musical masters, and the gandharva style looks to music primarily for pleasure, accompanied bythe soma rasa. In the  Vishnudharmottara Purana ,the Naga king Ashvatara asks to know the svaras from Saraswati.The most important text on music in the ancient canon is Bharata's  Natya Shastra ,composed around the   3rd century CE. The Natya Shastra deals with the different modes of music, dance, and drama, and alsothe emotional responses(rasa)they are expected to evoke. The scale is described in terms of 22 micro- tones, which can be combined in clusters of four, three, or two to form an octave.While the term raga is articulated in the Natya Shastra (where its meaning is more literal, meaning   colour or mood ), it finds a clearer expression in what is called  jati  in the  Dattilam ,a text composedshortly after or around the same time as Natya Shastra . The Dattilam is focused on gandharva music anddiscusses scales(swara), defining a tonal framework called grama in terms of 22 micro-tonal intervals( srut i  [3] )comprising one octave. It also discusses various arrangements of the notes ( murchhana ), thepermutations and combinations of note-sequences ( tanas ), and alankara or elaboration. Dattilamcategorizes melodic structure into 18 groups called  jati  , which are the fundamental melodic structuressimilar to the raga.The names of the jatis reflect regional srcins, for example andhri  and oudichya .   Music also finds mention in a number of texts from the Gupta period; Kalidasa mentions several kinds of    veena (Parivadini, Vipanchi), as well as percussion instruments(mridang), the flute (vamshi) and conch   (shankha). Music also finds mention in Buddhist and Jain texts from the earliest periods of the Christian era.Narada's  Sangita Makarandha  treatise, from about 1100 CE, is the earliest text where rules similar to   those of current Hindustani classical music can be found. Narada actually names and classifies thesystem in its earlier form before the Persian influences introduced changes in thesystem. Jayadeva's  Gita Govinda  from the 12th century was perhaps the earliest musical composition   sung in the classical tradition called  Ashtapadi music.   In the 13th century, Sharngadeva composed the  Sangita Ratnakara ,which has names such as   the turushka todi  ( Turkish todi ), revealing an influx of ideas from Islamic culture. This text is the last to be mentioned by both the Carnatic and the Hindustani traditions and is often thought to date thedivergence between the two.[edit] Medieval period: Persian influence  The advent of Islamic rule under the Delhi Sultanate and later the Mughal Empire over northern India   caused considerable cultural interchange. Increasingly, musicians received patronage in the courts of thenew rulers, who in their turn, started taking increasing interest in local music forms. While the initialgenerations may have been rooted in cultural traditions outside India, they gradually adopted manyaspects from their kingdoms which retained the traditional Hindu culture. This helped spur the fusion of  Hindu and Muslim ideas to bring forth new forms of musical synthesis like qawwali and khyal.    The most influential musician of the Delhi Sultanate period was  Amir Khusrau (1253  – 1325), sometimescalled the father of modern Hindustani classical music. [4]   A composer in Persian, Turkish,  Arabic,as well as Braj Bhasha,he is credited with systematizing many aspects of Hindustani music, and also introducing   several ragas such as Yaman Kalyan, Zeelaf  and Sarpada.He created the qawwali genre, which fuses   Persian melody and beat on a dhrupad like structure. A number of instruments (such asthe sitar  and tabla)were also introduced in his time.  Amir Khusrau is sometimes credited with the srcins of the khyal form, but the record of his compositions   do not appear to support this. The compositions by the court musician Sadarang in the court   of  Muhammad Shah bear a closer affinity to the modern khyal. They suggest that while khyal already existed in some form, Sadarang may have been the father of modern khyal.Much of the musical forms innovated by these pioneers merged with the Hindu tradition, composed in thepopular language of the people (as opposed to Sanskrit) in the work of composers like Kabir  or  Nanak.  This can be seen as part of a larger  Bhakti tradition, (strongly related to the Vaishnavite movement) which remained influential across several centuries; notable figures include Jayadeva (11th   century), Vidyapati (fl. 1375 CE), Chandidas (14th  – 15th century), and Meerabai (1555  – 1603 CE).    As the Mughal Empire came into closer contact with Hindus, especially under Jalal ud-Din  Akbar ,music and dance also flourished. In particular, the musicianTansen introduced a number of innovations, including ragas and particular compositions. Legend has it that upon his rendition of a night-time raga inthe morning, the entire city fell under a hush and clouds gathered in the sky, and that he could light firesby singing the raga Deepak , which is supposed to be composed of notes in high octaves. At the royal house of  Gwalior , Raja Mansingh Tomar  (1486  – 1516 CE) also participated in the shift from   Sanskrit to the local idiom(Hindi)as the language for classical songs. He himself penned several volumes of compositions on religious and secular themes, and was also responsible for the major compilation, the Mankutuhal  ( Book of Curiosity ), which outlined the major forms of music prevalent atthe time. In particular, the musical form known as dhrupad saw considerable development in his court and   remained a strong point of the Gwalior gharana for many centuries. After the dissolution of the Mughal empire, the patronage of music continued in smaller princely kingdomslike Lucknow, Patiala,and Banaras,giving rise to the diversity of styles that is today known asgharanas.    Many musician families obtained large grants of land which made them self sufficient, at least for a fewgenerations (e.g. the Sham Chaurasia gharana). Meanwhile the Bhakti and Sufi traditions continued to develop and interact with the different gharanas and groups.[edit] Modern era   Until the late 19th century, Hindustani classical music was imparted on a one-on-one basis through theguru-shishya ( mentor-protégé ) tradition. This system had many benefits, but also several drawbacks; inmany cases, the shishya had to spend most of his time serving his guru with a hope that the guru might  teach him a cheez (piece or nuance) or two. In addition, the system forced the music to be limited to asmall subsection of the Indian community. To a large extent it was limited to the palaces and dance halls.It was shunned by the intellectuals, avoided by the educated middle class, and in general looked downupon as a frivolous practice. [5]     Then a fortunate turn of events started the renaissance of Hindustani classical music.First, as the power of the maharajahs and nawabs declined in early 20th century, so did their patronage.   With the expulsion of  Wajid Ali Shah to Calcutta after 1857, the Lucknavi musical tradition came to   influence the music of renaissance in Bengal,giving rise to the tradition of  Ragpradhan gan around the   turn of the century. Also, at the turn of the century, two great stars emerged on the horizon: Vishnu Digambar    Paluskar  and Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande.Independent of each other, they spread Hindustani classical   music to the masses in general, and the Marathi middle class in particular. These two gentlemen brought classical music to the masses by organizing music conferences, starting schools, teaching music in class-rooms, and devising a standardized grading and testing system, and by standardizing the notationsystem. [6]     Vishnu Digambar Paluskar  emerged as a talented musician and organizer despite having been blinded at   age 12. His books on music, as well as the  Gandharva Mahavidyalaya  music school that he opened   inLahore in 1901, helped foster a movement away from the closed gharana system. Paluskar's contemporary (and occasional rival) Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande recognized the many rifts   that had appeared in the structure of Indian classical music. He undertook extensive research visits to alarge number of gharanas, Hindustani as well as Carnatic, collecting and comparing compositions.Between 1909 and 1932, he produced the monumental four-volume work Hindustani SangeethaPadhathi  , [7] which suggested a transcription for Indian music, and described the many traditions in thisnotation. Finally, it consolidated the many musical forms of Hindustani classical music into a number of  thaats(modes), subsequent to the Melakarta system that reorganized Carnatic tradition in the 17th century. The ragas as they exist today were consolidated in this landmark work, although there are someinconsistencies and ambiguities in Bhatkande's system.The now tiny state of  Goa has contributed a lot to Indian Classical music.Some of the renowned singers from 19th,-21st century hail from the state of Goa where the music was kept alive in the temples. [8]  In modern times, the government-run  All India Radio, Bangladesh Betar  and Radio Pakistan helped to   bring the artists to public attention, countering the loss of the patronage system. The first star wasGauhar Jan,whose career was born out of  Fred Gaisberg's first recordings of Indian music in 1902. With the advance of films and other public media, musicians started to make their living through publicperformances. As India was exposed to Western music, some Western melodies started merging withclassical forms, especially in popular music. A number of  Gurukuls,such as that of   Alauddin Khan atMaihar ,flourished. In more modern times, corporate support has also been forthcoming, as at the ITC Sangeet Research Academy.Meanwhile, Hindustani classical music has become popular across   the world through the influence of artists such as Ravi Shankar  and  Ali Akbar Khan.  [edit] Principles of Hindustani music
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