434-439 | Alkalinity | Water Resources

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ISSN: 0973-4945; CODEN ECJHAO http://www.e-journals.net E-Journal of Chemistry Vol. 4, No.3, pp. 434-439, July 2007 Assessment of Ground Water Quality in and around Gobichettipalayam Town Erode District, Tamilnadu P. N. PALANISAMY*, A. GEETHA, M. SUJATHA, P. SIVAKUMAR and K. KARUNAKARAN# Department of Chemistry, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai-638 052, Tamilnadu. # Department of Chemistry, Sona College of Technology, Salem - 5, Tamilnadu. India. shivagobi@yahoo.com Received 5 February
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    ISSN: 0973-4945;   CODEN ECJHAO   E-Journal of Chemistry   http://www.e-journals.net Vol. 4, No.3, pp. 434-439, July 2007 Assessment of Ground Water Quality in and aroundGobichettipalayam Town Erode District, Tamilnadu P. N. PALANISAMY*, A. GEETHA,M. SUJATHA, P. SIVAKUMAR and K. KARUNAKARAN # Department of Chemistry, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai-638 052, Tamilnadu. # Department of Chemistry, Sona College of Technology, Salem - 5, Tamilnadu. India. shivagobi@yahoo.com Received 5 February 2007; Accepted 4 March 2007 Abstract: Ground water samples collected from different localities in andaround Gobichettipalayam town, Erode District, Tamil Nadu were analyzedfor their physico- chemical characteristics. This analysis result was comparedwith the WHO & ICMR standards of drinking water quality parameters withthe following water quality parameters namely pH , Electrical conductivity,CN - , Cl - , SO 42 - , Na + , K + , Ca   &   Mg in CaCO 3 equivalents , phenolphthaleinalkalinity, hydroxide alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity,total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, total solids, total suspended solids,calcium, magnesium, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, fluoride etc ., Theusefulness of these parameters in predicting ground water qualitycharacteristics were discussed. Thus an attempt has been made to find thequality of ground water in and around Gobichettipalayam town, suitable fordrinking purposes or not.   Keywords: Physico- chemical characteristics, Drinking water quality parameters, Ground water. Introduction The quality of ground water depends on various chemical constituents and theirconcentration, which are mostly derived from the geological data of the particular region.Ground water occurs in weathered portion, along the joints and fractures of the rocks. In fact,industrial waste and the municipal solid waste have emerged as one of the leading cause of pollution of surface and ground water. In many parts of the country available water is  435 P. N. PALANISAMY et al.  rendered non-potable because of the presence of heavy metal in excess. The situation getsworsened during the summer season due to water scarcity and rain water discharge.Contamination of water resources available for household and drinking purposes with heavyelements, metal ions and harmful microorganisms is one of the serious major healthproblems. As a result huge amount of money is spent for chemical treatment of contaminated water to make it potable. Thus there is a need to look for some usefulindicators, both chemical and physical, which can be used to monitor both drinking wateroperation and performance. Gobichettipalayam area comprises different types of Archaeancrystalline formations. The main water source for the town is from Bhavani River which issituated Northern side of the town and from LBP (Lower Bhavani Project) which is atsouthern side of the town. It was estimated that in Gobichettipalayam town, the gross areairrigated from the ground water source was 6222 hectares during the year 2001-2002, 9180hectares in 2002-2003 and 5471 hectares in 2003-2004. Regarding the annual rainfalldetails, it was estimated that 616.6 mm of rainfall during the year 2001-2002, 825.1 mmin 2002-2003 and 782.2 mm in 2003-2004.At present there is no major industry in and around the study area, yet householdwaste water and garbage (municipal sewage) are directly discharged into the area. The watersupply for human consumption is often directly sourced from ground water withoutbiochemical treatment and the level of pollution has become a cause for major concern. Thewater used for drinking purpose should be free from toxic elements, living and non-livingorganisms and excessive amount of minerals that may be harmful to health. Keeping this infocus, the quality aspects of ground water in Gobichettipalayam area were analyzed forgeneral water quality, pollution due to industrial discharges and pollution due to municipalsewage. Hence, it is highly essential to examine the presence of toxic substances indistribution water for potable purpose before it is used for drinking. Thus in this paper anattempt has been made to assess the physical and chemical properties of ground water in andaround Gobichettipalayam town. Experimental Sampling sites For the present study, the area in and around Gobichettipalayam town, Erode District,Tamilnadu was selected. It covers 10 sq.km from the town. The selected areas werecategorized into five zones. These were; zone 1 (North of Gobi); zone 2 (South of Gobi);zone 3 (Middle of Gobi); zone 4 (East of Gobi); and zone 5 (West of Gobi).Overall, 20sampling sites including 5 samples in zone1, 4 samples in zone 2, 4 samples in zone 3, 4samples in zone 4 and 3 samples in zone 5 were collected for monitoring the physico-chemical status of the ground water. Sample collection Water samples from the selected sites were collected during Feb-March 2006 and taken inpre-cleaned polyethylene bottles. The samples after collection were immediately placed indark boxes and processed within 6 h of collection. Physico-chemical analysis The collected samples were analyzed for major physical and chemical water qualityparameters like pH , Electrical conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved solids (TDS), totalhardness (TH), Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , CO 32- , HCO 3- , OH - , Cl - , F - and SO 42 - as per the method  Assessment of Ground Water Quality 436described in “Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater”, AmericanPublic Health Association (APHA) 2 .The parameters present in the water sample can becalculated by using various methods 3-4 . The pH of the samples were determined using a pHelectrode 9107 and an expandable ion analyzer EA 940. Electrical conductivity wasmeasured using an Elico CM-180 conductivity meter and sulphate by turbidimetric methodusing a spectronic-20 (Bosch and Lamb,USA) 5 .The fluoride ion concentration was measuredusing Orion ion analyser EA940 with fluoride ion selective electrode (all Orion, USA-make) 6 .The chloride, total hardness and total alkalinity were estimated by the standardmethods of water and waste water 7 . Results and Discussion The values of various parameters were furnished in the Table 1. The results indicates thatthe quality of water considerably varies from location to location. The underground water ischaracterized by a relatively constant pH of around 6.5 to 7.15 for the samples collectedfrom Bhavani River and LBP canal. Water samples with low pH may be attributed to thedischarge of acidic water into this sources by the agricultural and domestic activities.Samples collected form the Sampling points Nadarkurai and Near PKR College wereslightly basic which can be seen from its pH and alkalinity values. Fluoride was also presentwithin the permissible limit. There is no major cause for this alkalinity by any means of human activities. In fact 98% of all world ground water are dominated by Calcium andbicarbonate ions due to lime stone weathering in the catchments and under ground waterbeds 8 . The EC values were found higher at sampling points LBP canal and Anuman KovilStreet due to concentrated colloids in canal water and dissolved salts in Nadarkurai. Verylow conductivity was found at sampling points Kodishwaran Nagar, Chellapa Nagar &Kallipatti due to dilution of the contaminants by percolating rainwater. No cyanide wasidentified even in trace amounts, this may be due to the absence of chemical industries in thenear by places of our focus area. The marine component comprises sea salts and theterrestrial supplies are limited to dust and biogenic emissions, while the anthropogeniccomponents in this area are likely limited due to a lack of industry. The values of salts suchas Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl - and SO 42- suggested that the surface water sources posses very lowmarine components, while underground water sources which are far away from surfaceground water or Dam water source were found to possess higher amounts of marinecomponents.The water samples from Kodishwaran Nagar, Chellappa Nagar, Karattadipalayam andnear PKR college were found to possess high TDS value when compared with the tolerance limitof 1500 ppm. Among this, the water sample from near PKR College having TDS in the order of 2900 ppm. The TDS was found to be low for the water samples collected from the Bhavani Riverand LBP canal. Samples from the sources Pariyur, Mettuvalavu and Gandhi Nagar showed lowlevel of TDS of the range less than 250 ppm, which indicates that the recharging of under groundwater through either rain water or by the water from near by canals. The possibilities of dissolution of rockey minerals are very low. TDS in all the samples found nil which is a goodindicator that there is no direct seepage of contaminated surface water or any sewage water intothe water sources. The Dissolved Oxygen of the water samples varies from 4.0 to 8.8 ppm fromthe points Kodishwaran Nagar, D.G.Pudur and Mettuvlavu. This may be attributed that poorrecharge of these sources by surface sources like Rainwater harvesting and canal water. All thewater samples invariably had very low level of fluoride contents which is a good sign for theusage of this water for potable purpose.  Table 1 . Water Quality parameters of Samples Collected in and Around Gobichettipalayam Town (Erode District, Tamilnadu)Parameter / Sample    W   H   O   S   t  a  n   d  a  r   d   B   h  a  v  a  n   i  r   i  v  e  r   L  o  w  e  r   B   h  a  v  a  n   i  p  r  o   j  e  c   t  c  a  n  a   l   A  n  u  m  a  n   K  o  v   i   l  s   t  r  e  e   t   K  u   l   l  a  m  p  a   l  a  y  a  m   R  a  m  a  n  a   t   h  a   N  a  g  a  r   U  p  p  u   k   i   d  a  n   k  u   S  a  n   d   h  u   K  o   d   i  s   h  w  a  r  a  n   N  a  a  r   C   h  e   l   l  a  p  p  a   N  a  g  a  r   D .   G .   P  u   d  u  r   T   h  a  n  e  e  r  p  a  n   d   h  a   l   P  a  r   i  u  r   K  u  r  u  m  a  n   t   h  u  r   M  e   t   t  u  v  a   l  a  v  u   K  a  r  a   t   t  a   d   i  -  p  a   l  a  y  a  m   P  o   d   i  c   h   i  n  n  a  m  -  a   l  a  a  m   N  a   d  a  r   k  u  r  a   i   N  e  a  r   P   K   R   C  o   l   l  e  e   K  a   l   l   i  p  a   t   t   i   P  u   d  u  p  a   l  a  y  a  m   G  a  n   d   h   i  n  a  g  a  r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20pH 7.0 - 8.5 6.46 6.07 7.14 7.15 6.61 6.91 6.98 6.84 7.01 6.98 6.60 6.88 6.78 6.83 6.50 8.23 7.38 7.00 6.91 6.66EC, mV - 3.0 55.1 9.2 8.8 22.8 5.6 0.6 9.7 0.8 1.2 23.8 7.0 12.6 10.4 29.6 72.6 23.1 0.2 5.6 20.3Chloride, ppm 200 - 600 35 35 128 35 326 113 517 475 376 85 129 71 546 447 135 92 830 92 176 35Sulphate, ppm 200 - 400 0 0 77 0 159 676 280 210 160 127 26 0 228 166 140 14 163 134 104 0Sodium , ppm - 0 0 90 0 130 80 330 275 230 25 25 0 330 105 30 0 550 25 135 0Potassium, ppm - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0Calcium, ppm 75 - 200 65 40 180 95 145 180 425 385 250 265 225 190 300 625 175 185 250 260 175 25 Magnesium, ppm 30 - 150 50 35 240 205 325 170 440 495 470 300 135 160 275 485 390 70 550 250 310 95OH - Alkalinity,ppm- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 160 0 0 0CarbonateAlkalinity, ppm- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1720 640 0 0 0BicarbonateAlkalinity , ppm- 94 48 69 98 37 52 63 58 54 40 193 97 50 14 68 510 0 0 0 0Total Alkalinity,ppm- 94 48 69 98 37 52 63 58 54 40 193 97 50 14 68 1930 800 0 0 0Total DissolvedSolids, ppm500 - 1500 160 20 840 300 1100 900 1960 1980 600 860 240 540 244 2400 900 360 2900 650 1120 200Total Hardness,ppm200 - 600 115 75 420 300 770 350 865 880 720 565 360 350 875 1110 565 255 800 515 485 120Dissolved Oxygenppm5.0 - 6.0 8.20 5.00 5.60 6.60 5.20 6.00 4.80 6.20 4.80 6.60 5.00 6.00 4.00 8.80 8.00 7.40 7.00 7.60 5.80 5.60Fluoride, ppm 1.0 - 1.5 0.71 0.69 0.73 0.81 0.83 0.61 0.65 0.59 0.63 0.83 0.86 0.37 0.46 0.00 0.00 0.71 0.21 0.36 0.41 0.00
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