4075-EnterpriseArchitectureWhitepaper | Enterprise Architecture | Conceptual Model

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  1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234561234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234561234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234561234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234561234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234561234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234561234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234561234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234561234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234561234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234561234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234561234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234561234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234561234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123412345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123412345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123412345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123412345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123412345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234 BBBBB USINESSUSINESSUSINESSUSINESSUSINESS PPPPP ROCESSROCESSROCESSROCESSROCESS TTTTT RENDSRENDSRENDSRENDSRENDS WHITEPAPER January 20031 © 2002 Business Process Trends Author:Paul Harmon Executive Editor Business Process Trends Contents: The Enterprise ArchitectureThe Zachman FrameworkThe Enterprise ArchitectureCycleMaintaining an Enterprise Archi-tectureHow to Create an EnterpriseArchiecture1. Agree on the Need2. Establish an OrganizationalStructure3. Select a Framework4. Select a Tool and Repository5. Organize the Existing Material6. Begin Using the EnterpriseArchitecture7. Extend and Maintain the Archi-tectureAligning the OrganizationAligning Business Processeswith Information SystemsSummaryNotesSidebar 1. The U.S.Government's EnterpriseArchitecture Initiative Developing anEnterprise Architecture Overview This white paper discusses the growing role and importance of enterprise architecturesin the management of organizations. I will begin with a definition of an enterprisearchitecture, then I will examine the Zachman Framework, a typical overview of anenterprise architecture. Subsequently, I will consider how an enterprise architecturemight be used in a large organization, and then consider how a company might goabout creating an enterprise architecture. Finally, I will consider how an enterprisearchitecture can be used to align organizational goals and how business processescan be aligned with IS systems. In other words, I will begin by considering strategicissues and gradually drill down into some of the tactical problems involved in thedevelopment of an enterprise architecture. An Enterprise Architecture The term “architecture” has been used for many years within the IS community torefer to various types of overviews that provide guidance to software systems andapplications developers. The term is obviously a metaphor derived from the buildingtrade. Just as builders would not undertake the construction of a house or an officebuilding without an architecture, documented in various blueprints, so softwaredevelopers should not undertake the development of software systems without adetailed plan, documented with software “blueprints” of various kinds.In the mid-Nineties, the term “architecture” began to be used by business managers,especially those involved in enterprise planning and in business process reengineeringprojects, to describe an overview of the business. For example, some managersbegan to refer to a high-level description of all of the core business processes in anorganization as a “business process architecture.”Today, there is a growing movement among both business managers and IS managersto use the term “enterprise architecture” to refer to a comprehensive description of allof the key elements and relationships that make up an organization. Increasingly,when managers talk about the alignment between business processes and goalsand IS applications and middleware systems, they rely on an enterprise architectureto define how the business-IS alignment should be achieved.There are many different approaches to describing the elements of an enterprisearchitecture. One approach that has grown in popularity in the past few years isbased on a framework developed by John Zachman. Zachman srcinally proposedhis framework in 1987 in an article published in the IBM Systems Journal  . Thearticle created quite a bit of interest when it was published, but was generally  12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123412345678901234567890123456789012123456789012341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123412345678901234567890123456789012123456789012341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890112345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789011234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890112345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789011234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890112345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901 WHITEPAPER Developing an Enterprise Architecture © 2002 Business Process Trends 2 dismissed as too comprehensive for IS developers. Over the years, however, asbusiness managers have become more concerned with business processes andwith linking strategic goals to business process goals, and both to IS applicationsand databases, the Zachman framework has become the most popular approach todescribing an enterprise architecture.I’ll consider the Zachman Framework in more detail in a moment. First, however, byway of preparation, I want to establish some expectations. To understand the ZachmanFramework it is important for the reader to realize that the framework is not simply adescription of a collection of documents and plans. It’s a model of how all of theparts of an organization fit together.A building’s architecture is more than a set of blueprints. High-level diagrams explainthe concept of the architecture to the owners of the building and allow them todecide if the overall approach will meet their needs. Second-level diagrams lay outthe basic units, the foundation, rooms and roofs. These elements must be designedwith each of the other units in mind. A foundation must have the strength to supportthe rooms. If the house has two or three stories, the foundation must be proportionallystronger. More bathrooms require more water heating capacity and larger pipes.More electrical capacity must be routed to rooms that are going to house utilities,like dishwashers or dryers. In other words, there may be different blueprints, one for the foundation, one for the layout of the rooms, one for the electrical systems, andstill another for the plumbing, but there must ultimately be relationships among thevarious blueprints to assure the house, as a whole, works as it should.Similarly, one group in an organization may survey the competitive environment andrecommend changes in strategy and new goals. Another group may define businessprocesses, and still another may create designs for new software applications. Theenterprise architecture defines all of these elements, and also defines how they fittogether to assure the organization functions as intended.I recommend that the enterprise architecture function should be a responsibility of the steering committee, perhaps a specific responsibility of the enterprise planninggroup. Senior management sets strategy, and strategies and their associated goalsshould drive the development and change of the business process architecture. Aproperly defined architecture provides an overview of the enterprise and how it functions.Thus, it provides managers with a context for analysis and decisions.Let me reiterate: A pile of documents does not make an enterprise architecture. Toobtain value from the various plans, models and documents that various groupscreate, they must be integrated. This is normally accomplished by means of asoftware tool – usually an enterprise or business process modeling tool that relieson an underlying repository. The various plans, models and documents are placed inthe repository and the relationships are established by those that place each elementinto the repository. Different groups using the enterprise modeling tool look at differentviews of the information in the repository. Business managers, for example, typicallylook at diagrams of the organization or at specific business processes. IS managersare more likely to check which software applications are associated with specificprocesses and then go to diagrams describing the applications.  12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123412345678901234567890123456789012123456789012341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123412345678901234567890123456789012123456789012341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890112345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789011234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890112345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789011234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890112345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901 WHITEPAPER Developing an Enterprise Architecture © 2002 Business Process Trends 3 If the enterprise architecture is documented in sufficient detail, managers are in aposition to ask about the implications of specific changes. In effect, one can “grabhold” of a specific item on a process diagram, “pull it” and see what’s attached to it.Similarly, if the repository contains data on employees and costs, one can determinethe specific costs and implications of changing the item and doing it in a differentway. In other words, a good enterprise modeling tool will allow managers to runsimulations that can show what would happen if different scenarios were to beimplemented.In a similar way, business managers can examine questions about gaps anddisconnects. Imagine, for example, that the steering committee is concerned withthe fact that customers continue to make the same complaints and the complaintsdon’t seem to result in any changes in the way the product is manufactured. Aglance at the appropriate organization or process diagram ought to allow theexecutives to determine the way information flows from customers back into thecompany. One diagram shows a line that runs from customers to the customer support group. Another check determines that the customer support group logscomplaints. A continued search, however, doesn’t turn up any link between customer support and product design or manufacturing. In effect, managers are going to wantto create a new, formal information flow from customer support to product designand to manufacturing. At the same time, they are probably going to want to createa formal measurement system and charge specific managers along the new pathwith monitoring complaints and making changes in products in response tocomplaints.To sum up again: An enterprise architecture is a tool to help executives think aboutthe organization as a whole. An enterprise architecture captures a wide variety of information and links it together in a single database or repository, so that managerscan then see relationships and ask questions to identify problems or to makedecisions about changes they are considering.This white paper advocates that business managers and IS managers work together to create an enterprise architecture for an organization, and then urges that theymaintain the architecture as an ongoing way to assure that business processes andinformation systems remain aligned. If this approach is embraced, then it meansthat the group responsible for creating and maintaining the overall enterprisearchitecture must necessarily have both business and IS representatives and mustbe a high-level committee, probably reporting to the organization’s executivecommittee. I term this organization the Enterprise Architecture Committee, althoughit could as easily be called the corporate planning committee or any of a dozen other names. The key, however, is that this is the group that allows business and ISmanagers to work together to create a common, integrated view of the organization.In the past few years, the enterprise architecture overview that has been most widelycited as a model is the Zachman Framework. The current version of the ZachmanFramework is illustrated in Figure 1.The color and the labels on the extreme left are ours and we’ll explain them shortly.First, notice that the framework is arranged in rows. The rows at the top are themost abstract and are oriented toward very broad goals and plans. If I were building The Zachman Framework  12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123412345678901234567890123456789012123456789012341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123412345678901234567890123456789012123456789012341234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890112345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789011234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890112345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789011234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890112345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901 WHITEPAPER Developing an Enterprise Architecture © 2002 Business Process Trends 4 a house, this layer would describe the diagrams, pictures and plans the architectwould discuss with the owner. The next level is more specific, but still abstract.These are the diagrams that the architect would discuss with the contractor. In asimilar way, the top level of the Zachman framework, labeled “Scope,” is focused onthe concerns of senior executives. The second level focuses on the slightly moredetailed concerns of business managers. Level three focuses on concerns thatbusiness and IS managers often work on together. Levels four through six focus ondetails that IS managers and software developers are concerned with.If you look across the top row of the framework, you can see the types of issuesZachman expects managers to consider as they define the organization. He expectsthat executives will create lists of things important to the business, lists of processesthe business performs, lists of locations at which the business operates, and soforth. As you go down the rows, you can see that they are organized as levels. Asyou work your way down through the framework, you can see how lower level managersfocus on the same general topics, but in more specific detail. The top row, labeledSCOPE, focuses on documents that senior managers and planners would normallyuse. The plans and documents become increasingly specific and detailed as youdrop lower. The bottom layer refers to actual data, specific applications, all thephysical structures, and the people that comprise the business.A second glance at the matrix will reveal the various kinds of specific architecturesthat Zachman includes within his overall framework. The cell that represents theintersection of Function and Systems describes the organization’s applicationarchitecture. And the cell that represents the intersection of the Network and theTechnological model represents the technology architecture, which describes thehardware used and the links between the platforms.There are many alternative names being used to describe the cells in the ZachmanFramework. Some prefer to call the “technology architecture” the “hardware systemsarchitecture,” for example. Once you start down the path toward creating an enterprise-wide architecture, however, and you want to name and define all of the models anddocuments used in a large organization, you need a picture that embraces everything,and provides clear distinctions. Zachman’s Framework is popular because it providesa comprehensive overview and assigns a distinct name to each of the cells in hisframework. Most prefer to use this comprehensive, established, standard approachinstead of trying to recreate the entire approach using slightly different terms.Even those who rely on the Zachman Framework disagree about whom the architectureis designed to assist. For some, it’s an architecture for Information Systems people.This is probably the most popular approach to the framework, simply because theframework is best known in the IS community. At the same time, however, businessmanagers maintain many of the kinds of documentation described by the framework.For example, lists of business goals and strategies, business plans and the highlevel models of business processes supported by various divisions and lineorganizations, are normally created by business managers. If IS were to maintainthe framework, they would need to obtain all of these documents from businessmanagers and then maintain them by constantly checking with business managersto determine when things changed.
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